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Cataloging: If We Call It “Describing & Arranging” Does It Make More Sense To All of US?
Montana State Library: Fall Workshops 2010 <ul><li>Presented by </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Mary C. Bushing, Ed.D. </li></ul><ul...
Goals for today: <ul><li>Let library history put things in context </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the  big  picture </li></u...
Good news!    <ul><li>Those in the know say: </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis of TS will change from acquisition of content to u...
Elements to consider: <ul><li>Personal abilities for those involved in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cataloging work </li></ul></u...
Personnel for cataloging  <ul><li>Common sense & decision-maker </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to detail with well-organized ...
Networking. . .    electronic & human <ul><li>Standards / Conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Rules / Guidelines </li></ul><ul><l...
The role of technology <ul><li>Bibliographic record formats & metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>MARC ...
Two parts of cataloging: <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>To enable us to find things -  access </li></ul><ul><li>...
Classification: What is it? <ul><li>Classification = systematic arrangement in groups or categories according to establish...
Why do we classify things? <ul><li>To easily  </li></ul><ul><li>RETRIEVE   </li></ul><ul><li>them & to  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Dewey Decimal Classification (it’s a set of library codes!)   <ul><li>Hierarchy loosely based on tens </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Other ways of organizing? <ul><li>“ Collections” – fiction, reference, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Age / reading level / intere...
Other classification schemes: <ul><li>UDC – Universal Decimal Classification </li></ul><ul><li>NLM – National Library of M...
Shelf marks or Cutter tables . . . <ul><li>Charles S. Cutter & Margaret Sanborn </li></ul><ul><li>Used with Dewey to arran...
Spine label Cutter examples: PS 3545 E6 P6 1954 QA 151 D47 2006 581.9 W21r 330 M61 BC 185 D45 M47 1990 641.5945 LUONDO 200...
Descriptive cataloging <ul><li>Philosophies have changed, world has changed </li></ul><ul><li>Format used to take preceden...
AACR2 but should be  AACG2   <ul><li>Organization of rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 1: areas or elements for descript...
Organization of rules . . . <ul><li>Chapters 2-12:  </li></ul><ul><li>Material types  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#2 Books (pamp...
Organization of rules . . . <ul><li>Second part addresses  retrieval  rather than description  </li></ul><ul><li>Points fo...
Access points . . . <ul><li>Based on description, decide access points to aid user in retrieval. RDA is about  retrieval  ...
Subject headings / authorities <ul><li>Sears  –  Minnie Earl Sears 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>One volume, 872 pages </li></ul>...
Cataloging levels –  a fairly recent AACR2 idea <ul><li>Level 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient for small library </li></...
Level 2 . . . <ul><li>More rules applied & more details </li></ul><ul><li>Chosen by medium & large libraries </li></ul><ul...
Level 3. . .   <ul><li>Fullest with every bit of info included </li></ul><ul><li>Seldom done, not even LC does it </li></u...
Being correct is essential, but exhaustive is optional . . . <ul><li>Level 1 is adequate </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 is more...
What & why is MARC? <ul><li>Ma chine  R eadable  C ataloge </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a way...
Good reasons for MARC: <ul><li>Networking would be impossible without it </li></ul><ul><li>Defines structure for electroni...
But lots has changed! <ul><li>Copy cataloging – the result of networks </li></ul><ul><li>Out-sourcing – result of labor co...
Furthermore . . .  <ul><li>Original cataloging is seldom needed </li></ul><ul><li>Now we do “copy cataloging” </li></ul><u...
But cataloging as we know it is: <ul><li>Too expensive to sustain  </li></ul><ul><li>Separate from Web environment  </li><...
Changes as we speak! <ul><li>RDA: Resource Description and Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ New” unified standard  (see RDA ...
The needed revolution  <ul><li>No longer appropriate to bury key info in data strings </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be fully W...
Let’s consider the costs of “cataloging” <ul><li>List the factors that contribute to the costs of cataloging.  </li></ul><...
Things to learn more about: <ul><li>Meaningful statistics – what can our systems do if we enter the right info? </li></ul>...
Before we go . . .   <ul><li>List 2 things you learned today </li></ul><ul><li>List at least 2 things that surprised you <...
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Cataloging: Call It Describing & Arranging - Mary Bushing

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Powerpoint from Mary Bushing's Cataloging Session at the 2010 Fall Workshop, Great Falls, MT

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Transcript of "Cataloging: Call It Describing & Arranging - Mary Bushing"

  1. 1. Cataloging: If We Call It “Describing & Arranging” Does It Make More Sense To All of US?
  2. 2. Montana State Library: Fall Workshops 2010 <ul><li>Presented by </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Mary C. Bushing, Ed.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Library Consultant & Educator </li></ul><ul><li>2121 S. Tracy Avenue </li></ul><ul><li>Bozeman, MT 59715 </li></ul><ul><li>(406) 587-4742 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  3. 3. Goals for today: <ul><li>Let library history put things in context </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the big picture </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the influence of networks </li></ul><ul><li>Get a sense of the changes influencing how & why we catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Really get it that cataloging is about retrieval – not the library police or rules </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that best practices change </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy ourselves while learning! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Good news! <ul><li>Those in the know say: </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis of TS will change from acquisition of content to user’s discovery of content (good “cataloging”!) </li></ul><ul><li>There is growing need for all content to have some online manifestation. </li></ul><ul><li>TS staff will spend more time on creation, care & distribution of locally created content. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis in this stage is finding the right stuff—not being a detail fanatic for its own sake. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Elements to consider: <ul><li>Personal abilities for those involved in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cataloging work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking – people & technology </li></ul><ul><li>Classification – Dewey or LC or other </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive cataloging – AACR2 & RDA </li></ul><ul><li>Access points – authority lists/subjects, added </li></ul><ul><li>entries, metadata, Dublin Core </li></ul><ul><li>Original records / copy cataloging </li></ul><ul><li>Changes on the horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of what we do & how we do it </li></ul>
  6. 6. Personnel for cataloging <ul><li>Common sense & decision-maker </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to detail with well-organized mind </li></ul><ul><li>Broad knowledge of scope of disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to see the forest as well as the tree s </li></ul><ul><li>Technological skill & lack of fear of machines </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to play devil’s advocate, see options, </li></ul><ul><li>understand how to consider likely futures </li></ul><ul><li>A real expert on how people look for things </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to play well with others </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of humor </li></ul>
  7. 7. Networking. . . electronic & human <ul><li>Standards / Conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Rules / Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Authority & standards </li></ul><ul><li>Requires many decisions </li></ul><ul><li>No library is an island </li></ul><ul><li>Cost savings / efficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits & disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Constant compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-effectiveness issues </li></ul>
  8. 8. The role of technology <ul><li>Bibliographic record formats & metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>MARC to MARC 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Constant change, upgrades </li></ul><ul><li>Local platform </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to seamlessly interface </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment: currency, maintenance, & </li></ul><ul><li>expertise </li></ul>
  9. 9. Two parts of cataloging: <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>To enable us to find things - access </li></ul><ul><li>To put like things together - browsing </li></ul><ul><li>To provide another means for analysis – statistics/evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>It’s about location! </li></ul><ul><li>Cataloging </li></ul><ul><li>To accurately describe things – inventory/assets </li></ul><ul><li>To share records of things - resource sharing or ILL </li></ul><ul><li>To identify & value resources - management </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classification: What is it? <ul><li>Classification = systematic arrangement in groups or categories according to established criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Other words for it: </li></ul><ul><li>Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Arranging </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying </li></ul><ul><li>Classing </li></ul><ul><li>Filing </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why do we classify things? <ul><li>To easily </li></ul><ul><li>RETRIEVE </li></ul><ul><li>them & to </li></ul><ul><li>create order </li></ul>Make a list of things you classify, sort, or file in your life to enable you to find them.
  12. 12. Dewey Decimal Classification (it’s a set of library codes!) <ul><li>Hierarchy loosely based on tens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad subject or discipline first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrower subjects or subclasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not random (at times one wonders!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexible – things added & moved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Across cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of number – use of primes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Libraries add . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection identifiers or format at head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shelf marks” or cutters following </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Other ways of organizing? <ul><li>“ Collections” – fiction, reference, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Age / reading level / interest </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Format </li></ul><ul><li>Broad subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Provenance </li></ul><ul><li>Binding </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul>What impact do these have on users?
  14. 14. Other classification schemes: <ul><li>UDC – Universal Decimal Classification </li></ul><ul><li>NLM – National Library of Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Accession #: 2010:0612 </li></ul><ul><li>Accession & size: 2010:0612:71:4:3:14 </li></ul><ul><li>Book industry general subjects XXX </li></ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Shelf marks or Cutter tables . . . <ul><li>Charles S. Cutter & Margaret Sanborn </li></ul><ul><li>Used with Dewey to arrange materials on shelf </li></ul><ul><li>Used as part of LC classification </li></ul><ul><li>Can also add dates for editions or publication </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha numeric codes </li></ul><ul><li>Many options </li></ul>
  16. 16. Spine label Cutter examples: PS 3545 E6 P6 1954 QA 151 D47 2006 581.9 W21r 330 M61 BC 185 D45 M47 1990 641.5945 LUONDO 2000 917.9404 GILDART 2005 The point is: practice has changed over time. It’s our job to make it possible for users to find what they want without having to know a lot of insider information or special codes! LP Wilder B165
  17. 17. Descriptive cataloging <ul><li>Philosophies have changed, world has changed </li></ul><ul><li>Format used to take precedence </li></ul><ul><li>AACR, 1967, AACR2, 1978; 1988; 1998; 2002-2004, & RDA 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Defined levels of catalog records </li></ul><ul><li>Greatly influenced by networks, technology & electronic resources of all types </li></ul>
  18. 18. AACR2 but should be AACG2 <ul><li>Organization of rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 1: areas or elements for description </li></ul></ul><ul><li>#1 Title & responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#2 Edition (if other than 1 st ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#3 Material type details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#4 Imprint (publication, distribution, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>date, place, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#5 Physical description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#6 Series (if any) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#7 Notes (if any) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#8 Standard # & availability </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Organization of rules . . . <ul><li>Chapters 2-12: </li></ul><ul><li>Material types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#2 Books (pamphlets, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#3 Cartographic materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#4 Manuscripts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#5 Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#6 Sound recordings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#7 Motion pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#8 Graphic materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#9 Electronic resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#10 Three-dimensional artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#11 Microforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#12 Serials </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Organization of rules . . . <ul><li>Second part addresses retrieval rather than description </li></ul><ul><li>Points for retrieval, or “headings” are dependent on description (added entries) </li></ul><ul><li>Typical ones after “main” are usually author, but might have added title, added author, translator, illustrator, etc. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Access points . . . <ul><li>Based on description, decide access points to aid user in retrieval. RDA is about retrieval unlike AACR2 which was about rules . </li></ul><ul><li>Typical access points: </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate title </li></ul><ul><li> Series title </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrator / Translator </li></ul><ul><li>What else might matter to a user? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Subject headings / authorities <ul><li>Sears – Minnie Earl Sears 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>One volume, 872 pages </li></ul><ul><li>16,000+ (400+ new) </li></ul><ul><li>Broader, less technical </li></ul><ul><li>19 th edition, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Gives Dewey number </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic new editions </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic & print </li></ul><ul><li>Well controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Abridged follows 14 th ed. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for many </li></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress </li></ul><ul><li>5 volumes, 5,000+ pages </li></ul><ul><li>185,000+ topical </li></ul><ul><li>60,000+ name </li></ul><ul><li>500,000+ cross ref </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of special rules </li></ul><ul><li>Annual print editions </li></ul><ul><li>Now electronic </li></ul><ul><li>Seldom gives LC # </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of inconsistencies </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for one library </li></ul>
  23. 23. Cataloging levels – a fairly recent AACR2 idea <ul><li>Level 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient for small library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not full records but correct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Core” record concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without this option, the backlog was killing many research endeavors & networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Level 1 is often used </li></ul>
  24. 24. Level 2 . . . <ul><li>More rules applied & more details </li></ul><ul><li>Chosen by medium & large libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable level for bibliographic utilities (OCLC and their regional offices </li></ul>
  25. 25. Level 3. . . <ul><li>Fullest with every bit of info included </li></ul><ul><li>Seldom done, not even LC does it </li></ul><ul><li>Costly & often expensive waste of time & money </li></ul><ul><li>No mention of applying common sense! </li></ul>
  26. 26. Being correct is essential, but exhaustive is optional . . . <ul><li>Level 1 is adequate </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 is more complete </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3 is overkill in most situations </li></ul><ul><li>RDA: “core elements” concept that leaves more room for good judgment </li></ul>
  27. 27. What & why is MARC? <ul><li>Ma chine R eadable C ataloge </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a way for a computer to interpret data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as international standard for cataloging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows one to identify elements without knowing language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows libraries to have automated catalogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows bibliographic records to be manipulated, shared & transferred from system to system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biggest problem: it is based on old technology & old answers to old questions & possibilities! </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Good reasons for MARC: <ul><li>Networking would be impossible without it </li></ul><ul><li>Defines structure for electronic format of bibliographic records across languages, cultures & software platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Enables libraries to provide all of the needed information about an item or file but not all fields and tags need be used </li></ul><ul><li>Appears difficult but gets easy with use </li></ul><ul><li>MARC 21 (21 st Century) – to provide some updates & changes while keeping all previous records intact & viable </li></ul>
  29. 29. But lots has changed! <ul><li>Copy cataloging – the result of networks </li></ul><ul><li>Out-sourcing – result of labor costs </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of consistency not local practice </li></ul><ul><li>Key word searching! </li></ul><ul><li>Federated search capabilities: a Google world </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Values changed: emphasis on customer service rather than exact details </li></ul><ul><li>AACR2 augmented by RDA (about access) & MARC 21 is now encoding standard/format </li></ul>
  30. 30. Furthermore . . . <ul><li>Original cataloging is seldom needed </li></ul><ul><li>Now we do “copy cataloging” </li></ul><ul><li>We match item in hand with record on screen </li></ul><ul><li>We download the record, edit if justified, attach an “item” (barcode) </li></ul><ul><li>Add our holdings to OCLC if appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Move to next thing to catalog!! </li></ul><ul><li>When de-accessioning, we reverse this process by finding the record & removing our holdings </li></ul>
  31. 31. But cataloging as we know it is: <ul><li>Too expensive to sustain </li></ul><ul><li>Separate from Web environment </li></ul><ul><li>Still descriptive data but not content </li></ul><ul><li>Too complex for even us! </li></ul><ul><li>Running on 50 year old technological assumptions/thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Are not state of the art now or compatible with the future </li></ul><ul><li>Scary!! </li></ul>
  32. 32. Changes as we speak! <ul><li>RDA: Resource Description and Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ New” unified standard (see RDA Toolkit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed over long period by catalogers! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supposedly designed for digital world & all formats but really just rehash of AACR2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross references to AACR2 rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALA, CLA, LC, British Library & Australian NL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is really just a transition rather than a revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain attributes/elements are “core” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many leaders (not catalogers) believe it is too little too late & too concerned with backward compatibility rather than forward progress </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The needed revolution <ul><li>No longer appropriate to bury key info in data strings </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be fully Web integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Now systems can manage data differently </li></ul><ul><li>Producers now have own ONYX format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplification of data elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical approach to data & arrangement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less costly, easier to handle, produce, use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future needs to be determined by best informed about big issues – top down process </li></ul>
  34. 34. Let’s consider the costs of “cataloging” <ul><li>List the factors that contribute to the costs of cataloging. </li></ul><ul><li>How might those costs be reduced? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the trade-off for implementing reduced costs for cataloging? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it worth it? For whom? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider your library specifically . . . Thoughts? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Things to learn more about: <ul><li>Meaningful statistics – what can our systems do if we enter the right info? </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ behavior & options – how do users use the ILS or Web these days? </li></ul><ul><li>Next leaps forward? </li></ul><ul><li>Forces influencing what we do & how we do it </li></ul>
  36. 36. Before we go . . . <ul><li>List 2 things you learned today </li></ul><ul><li>List at least 2 things that surprised you </li></ul><ul><li>Identify one good way you can use your new knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Smile: remember to use your sense of humor. This is not nuclear physics—just description & organization of stuff! </li></ul>
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