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Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
Prologue (updated   2014)
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Prologue (updated 2014)

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  • 1. PROLOGUE SECTIONS THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY Ѱ 1 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? 2 P CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY Psychology, Tenth Edition (Myers, D. G.) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2. THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Discuss the major differences between structuralism and functionalism PROLOGUE • Differentiate between biological, psychological, and socialcultural influences on a particular behavior or mental process • Describe how a particular behavior can be examined using each of the current psychological perspectives • Create research questions that address each of the current psychological perspectives © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 3. THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY PROLOGUE SECTION WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 4. 1 PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? Psychological Science is Born 1: What is the Mind? • Complex of elements in an individual that allows one to feel, perceive, think, have will, and reason • Allows one to develop conscious mental events The mind is what the brain does (Minsky, 1986). © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 5. 1 PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? Psychological Science is Born 2: How did psychological science begin? • The initial development of psychology was aimed at determining why humans existed; Wilhelm Wundt was interested in: How do they work together? • how the mind worked • how the brain functioned • the structure of consciousness • When psychology was founded, the intent was for it to be strictly a science; there was no intent for it to have practical applications (e.g. clinical psychology, counseling, etc.) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 6. 1 PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? Psychological Science is Born Wilhelm Wundt developed the first psychological laboratory in 1879: • His first experiment measured an individual’s reaction time when hearing a ball hit a platform (examined awareness). • It was determined that to be aware of one’s awareness takes a little longer. • His philosophies on how the mind functioned inspired others (including his students) to develop ways of studying the mind © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 7. 1 PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? Thinking About the Mind’s Structure • Edward Titchener in 1892 (student of Wundt) introduced structuralism. • structuralism: examination of the structural elements of the mind through the use of self-reflective introspection. • introspection: looking inward; selfreporting of one’s feelings and emotions • Titchener aimed to study the elements of what he called the “unitary normal human mind” ELEMENTS OF CONSCIOIUSNESS & REASONING = • The use of introspection proved somewhat Element Properties unreliable (difficult to generalize). quality | intensity | duration clearness| extensiveness © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 8. 1 PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? STRUCTURALISM FUNCTIONALISM - examined the structure of mind and thinking - used self-reflective introspection - focused on immediate sensations and feelings - focused on unobservable mental events - shown to be somewhat unreliable © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 9. 1 PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? Thinking About the Mind’s Functions • William James was responsible for promoting functionalism. • functionalism: examines the premise behind how the evolved functions of human thoughts and feelings help humans to adapt, survive, and flourish • Focus was on emotions, memory, will-power, habits, and and moment-to-moment stream of consciousness. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 10. 1 PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? STRUCTURALISM FUNCTIONALISM - thinking was considered adaptive - focused on emotions, memory, will-power, habits, and stream of consciousness - focused on the unobservable mental events © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 11. 1 PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? STRUCTURALISM FUNCTIONALISM - examined the structure of mind and thinking - thinking was considered adaptive - used self-reflective introspection - focused on emotions, memory, will-power, habits, and stream of consciousness - focused on immediate sensations and feelings - focused on unobservable mental events - focused on the unobservable mental events - shown to be somewhat unreliable © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 12. 1 PSYCHOLOGY’S ROOTS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? Thinking About the Mind’s Functions - examined the structure of mind and thinking Both Perspectives on: differences in reaction time STRUC short circuit of the full percetual process FUNCT different types of reactors that are adaptive Watch from 1:42 - 3:42 © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 13. 1 PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE DEVELOPS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? Contributions to Psychology’s Development 3: How did psychology continue to develop from the 1920s through today? • John B. Watson in 1920 introduced behaviorism. • behaviorism: scientific study of observable behavior • The idea is that as a science sensations, thoughts, and feelings are unobservable but researchers can observe and record people’s behavior as they respond to situations. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 14. 1 PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE DEVELOPS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? Contributions to Psychology’s Development • Carl Roger and Abraham Maslow pioneered the concept of humanistic psychology. • humanistic psychology: emphasizes the importance of current environmental influences on human growth potential and having needs for love and acceptance satisfied • In the 1960s, cognitive psychology (currently cognitive neuroscience) began to develop. • cognitive neuroscience: explores scientifically the way humans perceive, process, and remember information © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 15. 1 PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE DEVELOPS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? Contributions to Psychology’s Development TIMELINE Structuralism & Functionalism Behaviorism & Freudian Science of Mental Life Science of Observable Behavior 1879 Psychology Is Born 1920 1st Change Occurred Humanistic & Cognitive 1960 Science of Behavior and Mental Process 2014 2nd Change Occurred © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 16. 1 PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE DEVELOPS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? Contributions to Psychology’s Development • Today’s definition of psychology encompasses both behavior and inner thoughts and feelings. • psychology: science of behavior and mental processes  behavior: anything an organism does– actions that can be observed and recorded (e.g. sweating, blinking, etc.)  mental processes: internal, subjective experiences that are inferred from behavior (e.g. sensations, perceptions, dreams, etc.) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 17. THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY PROLOGUE SECTION CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 18. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE DEVELOPS 4: What is psychology’s historical big issue? • One of psychology’s most persistent issues is the naturenurture issue. • nature-nurture issue: debate between whether human traits develop through experience or innately • Charles Darwin’s believed his theory of natural selection helped to explain animal behavior (such as the emotional expressions associated with human lust and rage). V S • natural selection: through chance variations, nature selects the traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 19. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS 5: What are psychology’s levels of analysis and related perspectives? • When examining a particular phenomena (e.g., behavior) it is important to consider all levels of analysis. • levels of analysis: differing interpretive views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for examining any given phenomena • Each level provides a vantage point (window) for looking at a particular behavior or mental process, yet each by itself is incomplete. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 20. 2 PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY Biological Influences The “biology of humans” is considered the physical elements that make up the body in order for one to be able to function within a given environment. Influences to consider: • • • • genetic influences hormonal influences brain mechanisms natural selection of adaptive traits © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 21. 2 PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY Psychological Influences The “psychological state of humans” is considered that of the mind, that which affects the mind, or that which arises from the mind. • learned fears or other learned expectations • emotional responses • cognitive processing • perceptual interpretations LEARNED FEARS EMOTIONAL RESPONSES Influences to consider: © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 22. 2 PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY Social-Cultural Influences Influences to consider: • presence of others • cultural, societal, and family expectations • peer and other group influences • compelling models (such as in the media) ENVIRONMENT © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 23. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Biological influences: • natural selection of adaptive traits • genetic predisposition responding to environment • brain mechanisms • hormonal influences Psychological influences: • learned fears and other learned expectations • emotional responses • cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations Behavior or mental process Social-cultural influences: • presence of others • cultural, societal, and family expectations • peer and other group influences • compelling models (such as in the media) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 24. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS • A biopsyhosocial approach allows psychologists to consider a collection of viewpoints when analyzing behavior and mental processes. • biopsychosocial approach: an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis + bio + psycho social © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 25. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS PSYCH PERSPECTIVES ASSOCIATED LEVELS Neuroscience Biological/Psychological Evolutionary Biological/Social Behavioral Genetics Biological/Social-Cultural Psychodynamics Psychological Behavioral Psychological/Social-Cultural Cognitive Psychological Social-Cultural Social-Cultural/Psychological © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 26. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Neuroscience How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences Sample Questions How are message transmitted within the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 27. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes Sample Questions How does evolution influence behavior tendencies? How does evolution influence intelligence? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 28. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Behavior genetics How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences Sample Question + To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attribute to our genes? To our environment? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 29. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts Sample Question How can someone’s personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as the disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood trauma? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 30. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Behavioral How we learn observable responses Sample Question How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say, to lose weight or stop smoking? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 31. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Cognitive How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information 2+2= Sample Questions How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Solving problems? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 32. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Social-Cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultural Sample Questions How are we humans alike as members of one’s human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 33. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY EXAMPLE ANALYSIS BIOLOGICAL DEPRESSION PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIAL-CULTURAL Unsupportive Parents Hormonal Imbalance Anger Due to Divorce QUESTIONS QUESTIONS QUESTIONS Neuroscience Perspective How can hormones be regulated? As a child, did you surround yourself with angry people? Does your family’s culture believe in family support? Social-Cultural Perspective Psychodynamic Perspective © T.G. Lane 2014

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