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Prologue refresher

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  • 1. THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY PROLOGUE SECTION CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS 5: What are psychology’s levels of analysis and related perspectives? • When examining a particular phenomena (e.g., behavior) it is important to consider all levels of analysis. • levels of analysis: differing interpretive views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for examining any given phenomena • Each level provides a vantage point (window) for looking at a particular behavior or mental process, yet each by itself is incomplete. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 3. 2 PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY Biological Influences The “biology of humans” is considered the physical elements that make up the body in order for one to be able to function within a given environment. Influences to consider: • • • • genetic influences hormonal influences brain mechanisms natural selection of adaptive traits © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 4. 2 PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY Psychological Influences The “psychological state of humans” is considered that of the mind, that which affects the mind, or that which arises from the mind. • learned fears or other learned expectations • emotional responses • cognitive processing • perceptual interpretations LEARNED FEARS EMOTIONAL RESPONSES Influences to consider: © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 5. 2 PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY Social-Cultural Influences Influences to consider: • presence of others • cultural, societal, and family expectations • peer and other group influences • compelling models (such as in the media) ENVIRONMENT © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 6. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Biological influences: • natural selection of adaptive traits • genetic predisposition responding to environment • brain mechanisms • hormonal influences Psychological influences: • learned fears and other learned expectations • emotional responses • cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations Behavior or mental process Social-cultural influences: • presence of others • cultural, societal, and family expectations • peer and other group influences • compelling models (such as in the media) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 7. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS • A biopsyhosocial approach allows psychologists to consider a collection of viewpoints when analyzing behavior and mental processes. • biopsychosocial approach: an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis + bio + psycho social © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 8. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS PSYCH PERSPECTIVES ASSOCIATED LEVELS Neuroscience Biological/Psychological Evolutionary Biological/Social Behavioral Genetics Biological/Social-Cultural Psychodynamics Psychological Behavioral Psychological/Social-Cultural Cognitive Psychological Social-Cultural Social-Cultural/Psychological © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 9. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Neuroscience How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences Sample Questions How are message transmitted within the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 10. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes Sample Questions How does evolution influence behavior tendencies? How does evolution influence intelligence? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 11. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Behavior genetics How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences Sample Question + To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attribute to our genes? To our environment? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 12. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts Sample Question How can someone’s personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as the disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood trauma? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 13. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Behavioral How we learn observable responses Sample Question How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say, to lose weight or stop smoking? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 14. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Cognitive How we encode, process, retrieve information 2 + 2store, and = Sample Questions How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Solving problems? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 15. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY’S 3 MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Social-Cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultural Sample Questions How are we humans alike as members of one’s human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 16. PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY EXAMPLE ANALYSIS BIOLOGICAL DEPRESSION PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIAL-CULTURAL Unsupportive Parents Hormonal Imbalance Anger Due to Divorce QUESTIONS QUESTIONS QUESTIONS Neuroscience Perspective How can hormones be regulated? As a child, did you surround yourself with angry people? Does your family’s culture believe in family support? Social-Cultural Perspective Psychodynamic Perspective © T.G. Lane 2014