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Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 6 SECTIONS SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Ѱ 1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 VISION 3 6 THE OTHER SENSES Psychology, Tenth Edition (Myers, D. G.) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Discuss and identify differences between bottom-up and top-down-processing • Explain the process of transduction through use of sensory systems • Discuss how absolute and difference thresholds operate when processing sensory information • Identify examples of different types of perceptual sets • Discuss how the human eye processes light energy into visual information © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Discuss how Gestalt psychologists understand perceptual organization, and how figure-ground and grouping principles contribute to human perceptions • Discuss how human perceive depth perception, motion, perception, and perceptual constancy • Discuss how perceptual adaptation works • Discuss how the gate-control theory helps to explain pain • Discuss how pain can be examined using psychology’s three levels of analysis © T.G. Lane 2014
  • SENSATION AND PERCEPTION BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SENSATION CHAPTER 6 SECTION AND PERCEPTION © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 1 SENSING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 1: What are sensation and perception? What do we mean by bottom-up processing and top-down processing? Sensation and perception blend into one continuous process. • sensation: the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from the environment • perception: the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 1 SENSING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES Sensory analysis in humans occurs through two ways: bottom-up processing and top-down processing. • bottom-up processing: analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information (i.e. it used to fill in the gaps) • top-down processing: information processing guided by higher level mental processes, as when one conducts perceptions drawing on one’s experience and expectations (i.e. what is anticipated) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 1 SENSING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES Describe how bottom-up and topdown processing are used here. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 VISION TRANSDUCTION 2:•What three steps are basic to all humans’ sensory systems? Light enters the eye through • receive sensory stimulation, often using specialized receptor cells • transfer that stimulation into neural impulses • deliver the neural information to your brain © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 VISION TRANSDUCTION The process of converting one form of energy into another that your brain can use is called transduction. • transduction: conversion of one form of energy into another; in sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 1 SENSING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES THRESHOLDS CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 3: What are the absolute and difference thresholds, and do stimuli below the absolute threshold have any influence? Absolute Threshold absolute threshold: the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time (awareness of faint stimuli) • At slightly below the absolute threshold, one can still detect a stimulus some of the time. • Absolute thresholds can vary with age (e.g. as humans get older recognition of high pitch sounds gets lower). © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 1 SENSING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES THRESHOLDS Subliminal Stimulation Some entrepreneurs aim to penetrate unconscious awareness through the use of subliminal messaging in order to produce suggestive powers. • subliminal: below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness • At slightly below the absolute threshold, one can still detect a stimulus some of the time. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 1 SENSING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES THRESHOLDS Subliminal Stimulation Under certain conditions, one can be affected by stimuli so weak that it is unnoticed. One example of this through priming. priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response Example: participants that are asked to make sentences using negative words (masking stimulus)– later resulting in rude behavior) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 1 SENSING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES THRESHOLDS Difference Threshold To function effectively, humans need thresholds low enough to allow them to detect important sights, sounds, textures, tastes, and smell; this concept is called the difference threshold. • difference threshold: the minimum differences between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time; also termed as the just noticeable difference © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 1 SENSING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES SENSORY ADAPTATION CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 4: What is the function of sensory adaptation? • A persons ability to withstand an unpleasant stimuli (e.g. odor) involves sensory adaptation. • sensory adaptation: diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation • Sensory adaptation can occur through all five of the human senses (e.g. fixed eyesight results in fading vision); the human senses require being stimulated and excited. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 1 SENSING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES PERCEPTUAL SET CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 5: How do our experiences, contexts, emotions, and motivation Influence our perceptions? Through experience, we come to expect certain results; those expectations may give us a perceptual set. perceptual set: a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 1 SENSING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES PERCEPTUAL SET Sight Baby Girl vs. Baby Boy Colors Taste Hearing Taste Comparisons Cheer Up vs. Geer Up © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 1 SENSING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES CONTEXT EFFECTS A given stimulus may trigger radically different perceptions, partly because of our differing set, but also because of the immediate context. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • SENSATION AND PERCEPTION CHAPTER 6 SECTION VISION © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 VISION THE EYE The Stimulus Input: Light Energy © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 VISION THE RETINA • retina: the light sensitive membrane at the back of the eye containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 VISION THE RETINA © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2 THE RETINA CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION VISION Parts of the retina include the rods, cones, and optic nerve. • rods: retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don’t respond • cones: retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions; the cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations • optic nerve: the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain (i.e. where the thalamus will receive and distribute the information) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 VISION THE RETINA When an image is focused on the retina, that image is casted upside down. The retina’s millions of receptor cells convert particles of light energy into neural impulses and forward those to the brain (causing the image to appear right-side up). © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2 VISION VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 6: How does the brain processes visual information? • At the entry level, the retina processes information before routing it via the thalamus to the brain’s cortex. • The retina’s neural layers help to encode and analyze the sensory information from its rods and cones. • Information is then passed on through ganglion cells, through axons making up the optic nerve, to one’s brain
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 VISION VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING Feature Detection • feature detection: nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement • There is a certain temporal lobe region of the brain that enables humans to perceive faces and if damaged one might not recognize other forms or objects. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 VISION VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING Parallel Processing • The human brain is capable of parallel processing which allows for being able to do many things at once. • parallel processing: the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision; contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2 VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION VISION Features of Parallel Processing The brain divides a visual scene into subdimensions, such as color, movement, form, and depth. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2 VISION VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Color Vision 7: Where does color reside? • Color, like all aspects of vision, resides not in the object but in the theater of the human brain, as evident by one dreaming in color. • For about 1 person in 50 (usually male), are color deficient. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION VISUAL ORGANIZATION CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 9: How did the Gestalt psychologist understand perceptual organization? • German psychologists noticed that when given a cluster of sensations, people tend to organize them into a gestalt in order to form meaningful interpretations. • gestalt: an organized whole; gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes • The idea is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION FORM PERCEPTION CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Figure and ground Humans organize stimuli into a figure seen against a ground First, the eye-brain system distinguishes any object (figure)from its district surroundings (ground) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION FORM PERCEPTION Grouping Second, the eye-brain system must also organize the figure into a meaningful form • To bring order and form to basic sensations, the human mind follow certain rules for grouping stimuli together. • grouping: the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups (helps to construct reality) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION FORM PERCEPTION CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Grouping Examples proximity: humans group nearby figures together similarity: humans group similar figures together continuity: humans perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION FORM PERCEPTION Grouping Examples connectedness: humans perceive certain stimuli in single units or sets. closure: humans fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION DEPTH PERCEPTION CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 10: How do we see the world in three dimensions. Depth perception enables humans to estimate an objects distance from themselves. • depth perception: the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allow humans to judge distance The human brain constructs three dimensional perceptions using information supplied by one or both eyes © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION MOTION PERCEPTION CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 11: How do we perceive motion? • The human brain normally computes motion based partly on its assumption that shirking objects retreating/disappearing (not getting smaller) and enlarging objects are approaching; this is an imperfect perception (fast vs. slow objects) • The human brain can perceive continuous movement in a rapid series of slightly varying images (e.g. film/sideshow) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 12: How do perceptual constancies help us organize our sensations into meaningful perceptions? Humans must be able to recognize objects without being deceived by changes in their shape, size, brightness, or color– an ability called perceptual constancy. • perceptual constancy: perceiving objects as un-changing (having consistent shapes, size, lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change – this is a top-down process © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY Color Constancy color constancy: perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object Humans perceive objects not in isolation but in their environmental context (comparisons govern our perceptions) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY Shape and Size Constancies • Sometimes an object whose actual shape cannot change seems to change shape with the angle of one’s view. • Humans perceive the form of familiar objects as constant even while our retinal image of it changes (this is an example of shape constancy) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 2 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION VISUAL INTERPRETATION Humans have the ability to change their visual input in order to make the world seem normal through the use of perceptual adaptation. • perceptual adaptation: in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • SENSATION AND PERCEPTION CHAPTER 6 SECTION THE OTHER SENSES © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 3 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION PAIN CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 13: How can we best understand pain? • Pain is one’s body way of telling them that something is wrong; pain orders one to change their behavior • Individual pain sensitivity varies depending on genes, physiology, experience, att ention, and surrounding culture © T.G. Lane 2014
  • CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 3 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION PAIN There is no one type of stimulus that triggers pain (as light triggers vision). • there are different nociceptors— sensory receptors that detect hurtful temperatures, pressure, or chemicals • gate-control theory: the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain © T.G. Lane 2014
  • PAIN CHAPTER 6: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 3 PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION © T.G. Lane 2014