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    Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 3 CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWOTRACK MIND Ѱ THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS 2 SLEEP AND DREAMS 3 HYPNOSIS 4 SECTIONS 1 3 DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS Psychology, Tenth Edition (Myers, D. G.) © T.G. Lane 2014
    • CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Discuss the biology of consciousness including the functions of dual processing • Discuss the differences in selective attention • Discuss the four stages of the sleep cycle and what affects humans’ sleep patterns • Discuss the major sleep disorders • Discuss what functions sleep deprivation and dreams have on the body © T.G. Lane 2014
    • PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 1: What is the Mind? • Complex of elements in an individual that allows one to feel, perceive, think, have will, and reason • Allows one to develop conscious mental events The mind is what the brain does (Minsky, 1986). © T.G. Lane 2014
    • CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND THE BRAIN AND CHAPTER 3 SECTION CONSCIOUSNESS © T.G. Lane 2014
    • THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS CONSCIOUSNESS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 2: How do brain cells jabbering to one another create our awareness of the taste of a food, the idea of infinity, the feeling of fright? Consciousness allows human to assemble information from many sources as one reflects on one’s past and plan for one’ future. consciousness: human awareness of one’s self and one’s environment • focuses our attention when learning a com plex concept or behavior © T.G. Lane 2014
    • THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS • normal, waking awareness consciousness comes in altered states ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS SPONTANEOUS Daydreaming Hallucinations Sensory Deprivation PHYSIOLOGICAL INDUCED Drowsiness Orgasm Hypnosis PSYCHOLOGICALLY INDUCED Dreaming Food or Oxygen Starvation Meditation © T.G. Lane 2014
    • THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS BIOLOGY OF CONSCIOUSNESS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 3: What have neuroscientists discovered about consciousness? How are they using this information to read people’s minds? Cognitive Neuroscientists have taken the first step by relating specific brain states to conscious experiences Cognitive neuroscience: the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language) + © T.G. Lane 2014
    • THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND BIOLOGY OF CONSCIOUSNESS • Cognitive neuroscientists are exploring and mapping the conscious functions of the cortex. • Based on one’s cortical activation patterns, scientists can now, in limited ways, read individuals’ minds. How the synchronized activity produces awareness– how matter makes mine– remains a mystery (Myers, 2013) © T.G. Lane 2014
    • THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS DUAL PROCESSING CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 4: What is the “dual processing” being revealed by today’s cognitive neuroscience. There is growing evidence that humans have, so to speak, two minds, each supported by its own neural equipment. • Dual processing involves the idea that perception, memory, thinking, language, and attitudes all operate on two levels. • dual processing: the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks © T.G. Lane 2014
    • THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND DUAL PROCESSING Researchers have discovered that blindsight (responding to visual stimuli without consciously experiencing it) exists in some visual impaired. • Cannot consciously perceive but can accurately grasp objects (blindsight) • two different areas of the cerebral cortex • Cannot consciously perceive but can sense emotions expressed in faces (blindsight) • cortex and limbic system are processsing information at the same time © T.G. Lane 2014
    • THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND DUAL PROCESSING In everyday life, we mostly function like an automatic point-andshoot camera, but with a manual (conscious) override (Myers, 2013). • Humans unconscious parallel processing is faster than sequential conscious processing, but both are essential • Sequential processing is skilled at solving new problems, which requires focus and attention Experiments show that conscious decisions are faster than actual movement. A fMRI can be used to predict, with 60% accuracy and up to 7 seconds ahead, participants decision to press a button with their left or right hand. © T.G. Lane 2014
    • CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 1 THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS DUAL PROCESSING Selective Attention 5: How much information do we consciously attend to at once? “… consciousness is nature’s way of keeping us from thinking and doing everything at once”(Myers, 2013). • Humans are only able to focus on a limited amount of tasks at one time because of one’s selective attention. • selective attention: the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus © T.G. Lane 2014
    • CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 1 THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS DUAL PROCESSING The human senses take in about 11,000,000 bits of information per second, of which one’s consciously processes about 40; the unconscious mind intuitively makes great use of the other 10,999,960 bits. © T.G. Lane 2014
    • PROLOGUE : THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 1 THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS DUAL PROCESSING SELECTIVE ATTENTION SELECTIVE INATTENTION - focusing of conscious awareness - being blind to all but a tiny sliver of visual stimuli - cocktail party effect - inattentional blindness • ability to attend to only one voice among many • failing to see visual objects when attention is focused elsewhere - change blindness • failing to notice change in the environment © T.G. Lane 2014
    • INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND DUAL PROCESSING Inattention Blindness © T.G. Lane 2014
    • CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND CHAPTER 3 SECTION SLEEP AND DREAMS © T.G. Lane 2014
    • CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 1 SLEEP AND DREAMS SLEEP • When you are asleep, as when you are awake, you process most information outside your conscious awareness • EEG recordings of our brain waves can determine the moment we fall into sleep © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 2 SLEEP AND DREAMS BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND SLEEP CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 6: How do our biological rhythms influence our daily functioning? Circadian Rhythm • circadian rhythm: the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefullness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle. • Light in the morning effects retinal proteins that trigger signals to the brain’s suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)– the SCN causes the pineal gland to decrease melatonin (i.e. a sleep inducing hormone). Sunlight can reset one’s circadian clock when jet lagged. © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 2 SLEEP AND DREAMS BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND SLEEP CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND Sleep Stages 7: What is the biological rhythm of our sleep and dreaming stages? • The sleeping brain has its own biological rhythm • About every 90 minutes, humans cycle through four distinct sleep stages Four Stages: NREM 1, NREM 2, NREM 3, REM (NREM = non-REM) © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 2 SLEEP AND DREAMS BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND SLEEP CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND Brain Waves • Alpha waves are generally produced directly prior to entering sleep • alpha waves: the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state • Delta waves occur at the deepest level of sleep • delta waves: the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 2 SLEEP AND DREAMS BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND SLEEP CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND Sleep Stages 1-3 During NREM-1 sleep one may experience fantastic images, resembling hallucinations. After NREM-1 one beings about 20 minutes of NREM-2 sleep; one can be easily awaken but one is clearly sleep. In NREM-3, one’s body enters into deep (lasts about 30 minutes), one is hard to awaken © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 2 SLEEP AND DREAMS BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND SLEEP CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND REM SLEEP About an hour after one falls asleep, one ascend from their initial sleep dive; one moves from REM-3 to REM-2 to REM sleep (rapid eye movement sleep) • REM sleep: a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur; during this stage muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 2 SLEEP AND DREAMS BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND SLEEP CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND Sleep Stages • Most people pass through the four sleep cycles four to five times in one night. • The sleep cycle repeats itself about ever 90 minutes. • Differences in the amount of sleep one needs can depend on age and culture. © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 2 SLEEP AND DREAMS WHY DO WE SLEEP? CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 8: How does sleep loss affect us? © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 2 SLEEP AND DREAMS WHY DO WE SLEEP? CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND Sleep Disorders 9: What are the major sleep disorders? • Four types of sleep disorders include insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and night terrors. • insomnia: recurring problems in falling or staying asleep • narcolepsy: disorder of uncontrollable sleep attacks (a lapse directly into REM sleep) • sleep apnea: disorder of temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings • night terrors: sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified (occurs in Stage 3) © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 2 SLEEP AND DREAMS DREAMS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND What We Dream 10: What do we dream? • dreams: a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind (often difficult to remember) • manifest content: according to Freud, the remembered storyline or elements of a dream– censored and nonsexual • latent content: according to Freud, the underlying meaning of dream (as distinct from its manifest content) © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 2 SLEEP AND DREAMS DREAMS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND Why We Dream 11: What is the function of dreams? 1. To satisfy our own wishes. 2. To file away memories. 3. To develop and preserve neural pathways. 4. To make sense of neural static. 5. To reflect cognitive development. • REM rebound: the tendency for REM sleep to increase more quickly following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep) – the human body needs REM sleep © T.G. Lane 2014
    • CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Discuss how the idea of selective attention and dissociation help to explain hypnotic behavior • Discuss the differences between tolerance, dependence, addiction of drug use • Discuss the differences between depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens • Discuss the differences between biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences on drug use © T.G. Lane 2014
    • CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND CHAPTER 3 SECTION HYPNOSIS © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 3 HYPNOSIS 12: What is hypnosis, and what powers does a hypnotist have over a CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND hypnotized subject? hypnosis: a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 3 HYPNOSIS FACTS AND FALSEHOODS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND Can anyone experience hypnosis? • To some extent, all humans are open to suggestion. • Many researchers refer to hypnotic “susceptibility” as hypnotic ability– the ability to focus attention totally on a task, to become imaginatively absorbed in it, to entertain fanciful possibilities. • An authoritative person in a legitimate context can induce people– hypnotized or not– to perform some unlikely acts (i.e. participants will perform as long as they feel that the action is safe). © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 3 HYPNOSIS FACTS AND FALSEHOODS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND Can Hypnosis Be Therapeutic? • Hypnotherapists try to help patients harness their own healing powers through the use of posthypnotic suggestions. • posthypnotic suggestions: a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors + • Hypnosis appears to be helpful in the treatment of certain ailments but not all. © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 3 HYPNOSIS EXPLAINING THE HYPNOTIZED STATE 13: Is hypnosis an extension of normal consciousness or an altered CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND state? Hypnosis as a Divided Consciousness • Some believe that hypnosis involves not only social influence but also a special state of dissociation. • dissociation: a split in consciousness which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others • Hypnosis does not block sensory input, but it may block one’s attention to those stimuli (e.g. hand in ice water) © T.G. Lane 2014
    • CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND CHAPTER 3 SECTION DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 4 DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS DEPENDENCE AND ADDICTION 14: What are psychoactive drugs and how do these drugs effect CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND one’s physical and psychological state? • The use of psychoactive drugs can lead to a person developing a tolerance for a particular substance as well as develop withdrawal symptoms when the drug wears off. • psychoactive drugs: a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods through their actions at the neural synapses © T.G. Lane 2014
    • CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 4 DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS DEPENDENCE AND ADDICTION tolerance: the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect withdrawal: the discomfort and distress that follows discontinuing the use of an addictive drug addiction: compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences © T.G. Lane 2014
    • CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 4 DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS DEPENDENCE AND ADDICTION As the human body responds to the absence of a drug, the user may feel physical pain and intense craving, indicating psychological dependence or physical dependence. + drug psychological dependence: a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions anger physical dependence: a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued + drug migraine © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 4 DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS: DEPRESSANTS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 15: What are depressants, and what are their effects? Examples of depressant drugs include alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates. • depressants: drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions Drug effects: • slows neural processing • memory disruption • reduces self-awareness and self-control © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 4 DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS: STIMULANTS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 16: What are stimulants, and what are their effects? Examples of stimulants drugs include caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, methamphetamines (speed), cocaine, and Ecstasy • stimulants: drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions Drug effects: • increases heart rate and breathing • increases energy and selfconfidence • increases alertness and mood © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 4 DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS: HALLUCINOGENS CHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND 17: What are hallucinogens, and what are their effects? Examples of hallucinogen drugs include LSD and marijuana. • hallucinogens: psychedelic (“mind manifesting”) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input Drug effects: • perception of distorted images • feelings of euphoria, detachment and/or panic © T.G. Lane 2014
    • 4 INFLUENCES OF DRUG USE 18: Why do some people become regular users of consciousnessCHAPTER 3 : CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND altering drugs? © T.G. Lane 2014