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  • 1. CHAPTER 1 THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 1 Ѱ THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? 3 STATISTICAL REASONING IN EVERYDAY LIFE 4 SECTIONS 1 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT PSYCHOLOGY Psychology, Tenth Edition (Myers, D. G.) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 2. THE STORY OF PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Compare and contrast each of the three research method categories used in psychology • Discuss what it means to have a scientific attitude • Operationally define a dependent research variable PROLOGUE • Differentiate between negative and positive correlations • Describe how to conduct an experiment that shows causation • Identify whether two samples variables are statistically significant © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 3. THINKING CRTICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE THE NEED FOR CHAPTER 1 SECTION PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 4. CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Which of these statements below are true? • • • • • • • • • • Going outside with your hair wet will cause you to go sick Cold weather in general makes you sick Eating and then swimming can cause cramps Cracking your knuckles leads to arthritis Sugar makes kids hyper A cold shower can dampen your sex drive Eating carrots improves your vision Cutting your hair makes it grow faster You should feed a cold and starve a fever Reading in the dark will ruin your eyes © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 5. 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 1: Why are the answers that flow from the scientific approach more reliable than those based on intuition and common sense? • Relying on intuition alone can often lead to incorrect outcomes– humans often overestimate on their assumptions. • Empirical research help researchers generalize more accurately to the population. • Researchers use an empirical approach by relying on facts in order to answer important psychological questions. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 6. 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE THE SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 2: What are three main components of the scientific attitude? Researchers must have: curiosity: a passion to explore and understand without misleading or being mislead skepticism: challenging “truths” humility: an awareness of one’s own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives That feeling that makes your eyebrow raise– causing you to think to yourself, “Really is this true?” © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 7. CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE CRITICAL THINKING • Having a scientific attitude help psychologists develop more into critical thinkers • critical thinking: examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions (also called smartthinking). HUH!?! • Critical thinkers ask questions (e.g. Does the evidence justify a cause-effect conclusion?) and don’t blindly accept arguments and conclusions. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 8. THINKING CRTICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK CHAPTER 1 SECTION AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 9. 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 3: What type of method do scientists use to test theories? SCIENTIFIC METHOD THEORY 1 a testable prediction, implied by a theory RESEARCH 2 explains, organizes, predicts HYPOTHESIS THEORIES a method used to test a theory + RESEARCH & OBSERVATIONS 3 HYPOTHESIS © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 10. CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD • As a check on researchers’ biases, psychologists report their research with precise operational definitions of procedures and concepts. • operational definition: a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables (e.g. hunger, defined as “hour without eating”) • Careful use of words when defining variables should allow others to replicate (repeat) the original observers of an experiment. • replication: repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic findings extends to other participants and circumstances © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 11. Case Study Naturalistic Observation DESCRIPTIVE CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Surveys CORRELATIONAL 4: How do psychologists observe and describe behavior? EXPERIMENTAL 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 12. 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? DESCRIPTION CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE The Case Study • One of the oldest research methods are case studies. • case study: observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles • Case studies generally make it difficult to generalize to the larger population, but they often are good for suggesting directions for further study. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 13. 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? DESCRIPTION CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Naturalistic Observation • Naturalistic observation strongly considers the natural environment when gathering research. • naturalistic observation: involves observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation • This descriptive method does not explain but rather describes it. It offers a snapshot into everyday life. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 14. 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? DESCRIPTION CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE The Survey • The survey method looks at many cases in less depth • survey: a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group • Developing survey questions, and answers often depends on the ways questions are worded and respondents are chosen. • It is important for researchers to avoid basing conclusions on vivid cases and instead stronger consider the representative population © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 15. 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? DESCRIPTION CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE The Survey (Random Sampling) • Obtaining a representative sample requires choosing a group of randomly sampled participants that represent a particular total population. • random sample: a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has equal chance of inclusion • population: all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn • Larger representative samples are better than smaller ones. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 16. THINKING CRTICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE SURVEY EXAMPLE: CHAPTER 1 Video Game Usage Self Report © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 17. CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE HYPOTHESIS • The more time spent by a person playing video games in their real life, the more aggressive behavior they will exhibit © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 18. SURVEY PARTICPANTS CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Research Population Sample of Population representative 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE draw from N = 8000 = n = 426 • males and female • those that frequently or infrequently play video games © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 19. 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? CORRELATION CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 5: What are positive and negative correlations, and why do they enable prediction but not cause-effect explanation? • Surveys and naturalistic observations often show how one trait or behavior correlates. • correlate: a measure of the extent which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other (e.g. Does number of hours studying predict how well one scores on an exam?) • correlate coefficient: a statistical index/measure of the relationship between two things (-1 to +1) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 20. CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? CORRELATION • Researchers use scatterplots to illustrate the range of possible correlations from a perfect positive to a perfect negative • scatterplots: a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggest the direction of the relationship between the two variables. • The amount of the scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 21. CORRELATION • A positive correlation occurs if two sets of scores rise or fall together. (y) STUDYING CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? TEST PERFORMANCE Perfect positive correlation (+1.00) (x) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 22. CORRELATION • A negative correlation occurs if two sets of scores rise relate inversely (one set goes up as the other set goes down). (y) DECAY CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? TEETH BRUSING Perfect negative correlation (-1.00) (x) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 23. CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? CORRELATION • There is no relationship when two sets of scores are widely spread apart from one another or show no consistent pattern. (y) No relationship (0.00) (x) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 24. 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? CORRELATION • Correlations help to predict behavior but correlations do not suggest causation (e.g. depression does not cause low self-esteem or vice versa). (1) Low self-esteem EXAMPLE CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Correlation and Causation (2) Depression could cause Depression or could cause Low self-esteem or (3) Distressing events or biological predisposition could cause Low self-esteem Depression © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 25. THINKING CRTICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE CORRELATIONAL EXAMPLE: CHAPTER 1 Is there a relationship between violent video games and aggression? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 26. 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE HYPOTHESIS & RESEARCH METHOD CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Continued… • The more time spent by a person playing video games in their real life, the more aggressive behavior they will exhibit Initial Research Method: Surveys were collected on each of the research participants. Surveys were used to assess: (1) level of video game exposure (2) trait aggressiveness © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 27. THINKING CRTICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE RESULTS CHAPTER 1 Video Game Exposure Variable 2 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR Variable 1 Aggression in Past Year VIDEO GAME EXPOSURE HYPOTHESIS © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 28. 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? EXPERIMENTATION CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 6: How do experiments, powered by random assignment, clarify cause and effect? • Researchers can isolate cause and effect with an experiment. • experiment: a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors • An experiment manipulates a factor to determine its effect. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 29. 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? EXPERIMENTATION CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Random Assignment • By randomly assigning subjects in an experiment, researchers are able to eliminate alternative explanations in order to support their conclusion. • random assignment: assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups • Random assignment allows researchers to conclude that any later differences between people in an experimental and control group are most likely the result of the treatment. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 30. 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? EXPERIMENTATION CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Random Assignment • In an experiment, a researcher must create an experimental group and control group. • experimental group: in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable • control group: in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 31. 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? EXPERIMENTATION CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Independent and Dependent Variables • In order to conduct an experiment, a researcher must determine both the independent and dependent variables. • independent variable: the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is studied • dependent variable: the outcome factor, the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable • Both variables are given operational definitions, which specify the procedures that manipulate the independent variable or measure the dependent variable. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 32. THINKING CRTICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE EXPERIMENT EXAMPLE: CHAPTER 1 Does playing violent video games cause aggression? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 33. CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE HYPOTHESES • Playing violent video games in a laboratory setting will cause an increase in aggressive behavior • Playing violent video games in a laboratory setting will cause an increase in aggressive thoughts • Playing violent video games in a laboratory setting will cause an increase in aggressive emotions © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 34. RESEARCH PARTICPANTS CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Research Population Sample of Population representative 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE draw from N = 6500 n = 284 • males and female • those that play video games • differing trait agressiveness © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 35. RESEARCH PARTICPANTS Experimental = Group SAMPLE CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE n = 142 n = 284 = Control Group n = 142 © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 36. 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE INDEPENDENT VARIABLES CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Experimental Group + Control Group + - random/representative sample = Participants playing a violent video game (i.e., those receiving the treatment) – procedures operationally defined - random/representative sample Participants not playing a violent = video game (i.e., those not receiving the treatment) – procedures operationally defined © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 37. 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE DEPENDENT VARIABLE CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Operationally Defined = Aggressive behavior was operationally defined as the level in which participants delivered loud noise bursts (i.e., punishment settings) Volume levels are expected to increase according to the different group types/ independent variables Increases with aggression? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 38. CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 1 THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE RESULTS • Playing violent video games in a laboratory setting will cause an increase in aggressive behavior • Playing violent video games in a laboratory setting will cause an increase in aggressive thoughts • Playing violent video games in a laboratory setting will cause an increase in aggressive emotions © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 39. THINKING CRTICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE STATISTICAL REASONING IN CHAPTER 1 SECTION THE EVERYDAY LIFE © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 40. 3 STATISTICAL REASONING IN EVERYDAY LIFE DESCRIBING DATA CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 7: How can we describe data with variation? • Once researchers have gathered data they must organize this information in a meaningful way. • One easy way to do this can be through illustrations such as charts and graphs • Measures of central tendency (e.g., the mean) are often used to determine averages in sample data • Knowing the amount of variation in data is useful in determining how similar or diverse scores are (e.g. basketball points scored in each season) © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 41. 3 STATISTICAL REASONING IN EVERYDAY LIFE MAKING INFERENCES CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 8: What principles can guide our making generalizations from samples and deciding whether differences are significant? When is an Observed Difference Reliable? 1. Representative samples are better than biased samples. 2. Less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable. 3. More cases (i.e., subjects) are better than fewer. • Keep in mind that generalizations based on a few unrepresentative cases are unreliable. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 42. 3 STATISTICAL REASONING IN EVERYDAY LIFE DESCRIBING DATA CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE When is a Difference Significant? • When sample averages are reliable and the difference between them is relatively large, this difference would be considered to have statistical significance. • statistical significance: a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance • For most psychologists, proof beyond a reasonable doubt means not making much of a finding unless the odds of its occurring by chance are less than 5 percent (an arbitrary criterion). © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 43. THINKING CRTICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE EXPERIMENT Quantitative Results CHAPTER 1 Does playing violent video games cause aggression? © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 44. 3 STATISTICAL REASONING IN EVERYDAY LIFE DESCRIBING DATA (y) Significance: NON VIOLENT V2 p < .05 V1 AGGRESSION AFTER TRIALS CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Aggressive Behavior VIOLENT (x) Experimental Group Control Group © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 45. 3 STATISTICAL REASONING IN EVERYDAY LIFE DESCRIBING DATA (y) Significance: NON VIOLENT V2 p < .05 V1 AGGRESSION AFTER TRIALS CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Aggressive Thoughts VIOLENT (x) Experimental Group Control Group © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 46. 3 STATISTICAL REASONING IN EVERYDAY LIFE DESCRIBING DATA Significance: (y) NON VIOLENT V2 V1 p >.05 AGGRESSION AFTER TRIALS CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Aggressive Emotions VIOLENT (x) Experimental Group Control Group © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 47. 2 HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS? CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 9: What are the major differences and similarities in each research method category? COMPARING RESEARCH METHODS RESEARCH METHOD Descriptive Correlational Experimental BASIC PURPOSE WHAT IS MANIPULATED WEAKNESSES To observe and record behavior Nothing No control of variables; single cases may be misleading How well one variable predicts another Nothing Does not specify cause and effect To explore cause and effect The independent variable(s) Sometimes not feasible; results may not generalize to other contexts © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 48. THINKING CRTICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1 SECTION ABOUT PSYCHOLOGY © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 49. 4 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT PSYCHOLOGY 10: Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE • A laboratory experiment lets psychologists recreate psychological forces under controlled conditions. • An experiment’s purpose is not to recreate the exact behaviors of everyday life but to test theoretical principles (e.g. slapping vs. shocking– both are forms of aggressive behavior). • Psychologists’ concerns lie less with particular behaviors than with the general principles that help explain many behaviors. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 50. CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 4 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT PSYCHOLOGY 11: Why do psychologists study animals, and is it ethical to experiment on animals? • Psychologists often study animals to learn about people, by doing experiments with permissible only with animals; human physiology resembles that of many other animals. • The same processes by which humans see, exhibit emotion, become obese are present in rats and monkeys. • American Psychological Association has set guidelines that mandate the comfort, health, and humane treatment of animals, and of minimizing infection, illness, and pain of animal subjects. © T.G. Lane 2014
  • 51. CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 4 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT PSYCHOLOGY 12: Is it ethical to experiment on people? • Researchers must follow guidelines when conducting research with human participants; they urged to: 1. obtain the informed consent of potential participants 2. protect participants from harm and discomfort 3. treat information about individual participants confidentially 4. fully explain the research afterward • The idea is for a researcher to be sufficiently informative and considerate that participants will leave feeling at least as good about themselves as when they came in. © T.G. Lane 2014