Civil War Ii

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Civil War (Battles, Strategies, Casualties, Leaders, Outcomes)

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Civil War Ii

  1. 1. The Furnace of Civil War “ With a swift flourish of federal force, Lincoln hoped to show the folly of secession and rapidly return the rebellious states to the Union. But the war was neither brief nor limited.” Pages 451 - 475
  2. 2. Anaconda Plan <ul><li>Blockade coast </li></ul><ul><li>Liberate slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics/morale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control M. River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Split Confederacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Georgia & Carolinas </li></ul><ul><li>Capture Richmond </li></ul><ul><li>Engage enemy directly </li></ul>
  3. 3. First Bull Run -July 1861- <ul><li>Lincoln’s outlook … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90 days are up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green / young volunteers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture capitol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Northern outlook … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ On to Richmond” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hill top picnics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The South … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T.S. Jackson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebel Yell </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. First Bull Run -July 1861- <ul><li>Outcomes … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confident </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overconfident? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desertions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War is won </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wake up call </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln - enlistments </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Peninsula Campaign -Spring 1862- <ul><li>Who … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McClellan & Army of the Potomac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brilliant strategist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfectionist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The slows” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ if McClellan isn’t going to use the army I should like to borrow them” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Peninsula Campaign -Summer 1862- <ul><li>What … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven Days Battle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Within sight of Richmond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lee forces Union retreat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20K Confederate casualties </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10K Union casualties </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcomes … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S. defeat would’ve likely meant slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McClellan fired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln begins work on E.P. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Southern Strategy <ul><li>What … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee wants to pressure D.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign intervention? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Border states! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N. supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shiloh (April, 1862) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devastation to come </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Bull Run (August, 1862) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeats Pope </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Pivotal Antietam -September 1862- <ul><li>What … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee advances into MD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln re-hires McClellan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcome … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McClellan “acquires” Lee’s battle plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bloodiest day in U.S. history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>23,000 casualties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultimately … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee escapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>McClellan fired again! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Pivotal Antietam -September 1862- <ul><li>Lincoln (1863) … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong position to issue emancipation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ forever free” slaves in rebellious states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not border states! (Slippery slope) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Emancipation -1863-
  11. 11. Emancipation -1863- <ul><li>Outcome … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral cause! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War unconditional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N. Dem.s & butternut less enthusiastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War of union / not abolition? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Blacks Battle Bondage <ul><li>North … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reluctant to enlist blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraband </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backbone / plantations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last month of war </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Lee’s Heads North <ul><li>Burnside replaces McClellan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dec., 1862… Fredericksburg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lee wins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hooker replaces Burnside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May 1863… Chancellorsville </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lee wins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TS Jackson killed - “lost my right arm” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lee moves into PA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Off two great victories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stir N. opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign intervention? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meade replaces Hooker </li></ul>
  14. 14. Gettysburg July, 1863 <ul><li>3 days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pickett’s charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7K in ½ hour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning of end for Confederacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No more significant victories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gettysburg Address </li></ul>
  15. 15. War in the West <ul><li>July 4, 1863 … Vicksburg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several month siege </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital S. supply route from LA & TX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant wins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combined w/Gettysburg … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reopened M.R. to N. trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quelled Butternut peace agitators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally tips diplomatic scales </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sherman’s March Sept., 1864… captures Atlanta <ul><li>Nov. - burns city </li></ul><ul><li>Heads for Savanna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>250 miles of destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ make Georgia howl” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Total war” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demoralize </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Families, homes, property </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Immoral? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probably shortened war & saved lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S. desertions </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Politics and War <ul><li>N. Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Political infighting </li></ul><ul><li>Moderates (Lincoln) </li></ul><ul><li>Radicals (since 1861) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolition! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-exp. of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N. Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Democratic” burden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Douglas’ death divides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-war (Lincoln) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace-Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States’ rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copperheads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ant-E.P. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Butternut </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Election of 1864 <ul><li>Republicans … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Join w/war Democrats (Union party) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln wins nomination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VP A. Johnson </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TN / slaveholder / Border votes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Democrats … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George B McClellan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defeat imminent until … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile, Atlanta , Shenandoah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furloughs (bayonet vote) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lincoln victory - S. desertions </li></ul>
  19. 19. Election of 1864
  20. 20. Grant vs. Lee <ul><li>Grant replaces Meade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forceful / tenacious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage enemies simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summer 1864 … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilderness campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grant / 50K casualties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N. public outraged </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The End <ul><li>April 1865 … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Richmond taken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appomattox Courthouse </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Cost of War
  23. 23. The Cost of War
  24. 24. Ford’s Theatre April 14, 1865

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