WORLD TRADE SYSTEMS, WTO & THEIR IMPACT ON INDIAN ENTREPRENEURS & CRAFTSMEN by : DR. T.K. JAIN AFTERSCHO ☺ OL centre for social entrepreneurship sivakamu veterinary hospital road bikaner 334001 rajasthan, india FOR – CSE & PGPSE STUDENTS (CSE & PGPSE are free online programmes open for all, free for all) mobile : 91+9414430763
My word..... My purpose here is to give a few data and ideas to budding entrepeneurs. Be entrepreneur, change the society, change the world. Go with positive spirit. Please pass this presentation to all those who might need it. Let us spread knowledge as widely as possible. I welcome your suggestions. I also request you to help me in spreading social entrepreneurship across the globe – for which I need support of you people – not of any VIP. With your help, I can spread the ideas – for which we stand....
What is the objective of WTO? To promote world trade to ensure that there is free trade world wide (these objectives are supposed to keep in mind the developing countries, as WTO is supposed to be a democratic body)
When did WTO start ? 1/1/1995 (before this it was GATT)
First meeting In Cuba in 1947, over 50 countries participated in a meeting to start an international body withing the umbrella of the UN. Initially 23 members signed the treaty on ITO – which became GATT
What are the main bodies in WTO? Ministerial Conference (which meets once in 2 years) General Council (implements day to day decisions) Dispute Settlement Body (the most effective part of WTO) Trade Policy review Body (to review trade policy)
Other parts of WTO ? Council for trade in goods council for trade in services Goods council Services council Dispute settlement panels appellate bodies Committees on trade and environment Committee on trade and development
What is the area of India ? 2.4% of the world. but it has 16.6% population of the world
What is the share or urban population in total population in India? 28% of total population Urban population is growing at a faster rate it grew at >30% in the last decate as compared to only 18% growth in rural population.
What is population density of India? 325 persons per square km (it was only about 100 persons per sq. km).
What is the sex ratio in India? 933 females as against 1000 males.
What is literacy rate of India ? 64.8% 75.26 % for males 53.67% for females
What is the reason for population explosion in our country? Illiteracy social customs stable birth rate, but falling death rate (death rate has fallen from 27 to 8 per thousand in 5 decades)
What % of population conststitue workers? 30% only
What is life expectancy at birth in India? For males : 64 years for females : 67 years
What is the current birth rate in India? 25 per thousands (it has fallen from 40 CBR to 25 CBR) CBR = crude birth rate
What was the suggestions of Bhagwati Committee report to govt. Of India? (in 1973) To start rural work programmes to assist marginal and poor farmers by providing support in animal husbandary and by starting rural development programmes to start civil work of permanent nature to give employment to poor people
What is the number of umemployed persons in India now? 3 Crore people
What is the status of nutrition in India? Maternal mortality rate of 100 per 100000 and infant mortality rate of 70 per 1000 birth indicate very poor conditions of health care, nutrition, & maternity care
What is the fertility rate in India? TFR (total fertility rate ) in India is about 30 per thousand. Thus it shows that we have a very high growth rate in population even now.
What is GDP growth rate in India? 8% approximately
What are the targets of XI plan ? * Accelerate GDP growth from 8% to 10% and then maintain at 10% in the 12th Plan in order to double per capita income by 2016-17 * Increase agricultural GDP growth rate to 4% per year to ensure a broader spread of benefits
contd... * Create 70 million new work opportunities. (there are 30 million umemployed now) * Connect every village by telephone by November 2007 and provide broadband connectivity to all villages by 2012
contd.. * Provide homestead sites to all by 2012 and step up the pace of house construction for rural poor to cover all the poor by 2016-17 * Increase forest and tree cover by 5 percentage points. * Attain WHO standards of air quality in all major cities by 2011-12.
Targets of XI plan * Treat all urban waste water by 2011-12 to clean river waters. * Increase energy efficiency by 20 percentage points by 2016-17.
Target of XI plan Reduce educated unemployment to below 5%. * Raise real wage rate of unskilled workers by 20 percent. * Reduce the headcount ratio of consumption poverty by 10 percentage points. 2. Education * Reduce dropout rates of children from elementary school from 52.2% in 2003-04 to 20% by 2011-12 * Develop minimum standards of educational attainment in elementary school, and by regular testing monitor effectiveness of education to ensure quality k 5. Infrastructure * Ensure electricity connection to all villages and BPL households by 2009 and round-the-clock power. * Ensure all-weather road connection to all habitation with populati
Targets of XI plan * Increase literacy rate for persons of age 7 years or above to 85% * Improve nutrition level among women and children, Reduce anaemia among women and girls by 50% by the end of the plan
Targets of XI plan * Raise the sex ratio for age group 0-6 to 935 (from 927 now) by 2011-12 and to 950 by 2016-17 * Ensure that at least 33 percent of the direct and indirect beneficiaries of all government schemes are women and girl children * Ensure that all children enjoy a safe childhood, without any compulsion to work
Targets of XI plan * Lower gender gap in literacy to 10 percentage point * Increase the percentage of each cohort going to higher education from the present 10% to 15% by the end of the plan
Targets of XI plan * Reduce infant mortality rate to 28 and maternal mortality ratio to less than 1 per 1000 live births * Reduce Total Fertility Rate to 2.1 (from 3.3 now) * Provide clean drinking water for all by 2009 * Reduce malnutrition among chil
How to achieve better rural development ? Improve the working of PRI (panchayat raj institutions) remove corruptions (which is spreading in villages due to rural development programmes) improve transparency and public accountability in rural development work
How to improve PRI? Better training Women participation (33% is reserved for women, but it is only for the sake of formality). Better participation of villages in PRIs identification of village issues by people through collective participation better land records
How to improve industrialisation? Give freedom to private sector and enable them to achieve their objectives If we can have reduced ICOR (incremental capital output ratio)(ICOR now is 3.5) – we will be able to have better industrial growth - which will be possible with improved technology, reduced bottlenecks, improved infrastructure and support institutions and improved access to market
How can FDI increase in India? FDI in 2008-9 was about 4 lakh Crore Rupees or 90 billion $. reduce government restrictions regarding FDI improve business confidence to improve FDI.
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