STATISTICS  AFTERSCHO☺OL   –  DEVELOPING CHANGE MAKERS  CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP  PGPSE PROGRAMME –  World’ Most...
STATISTICS Dr. T.K. Jain. AFTERSCHO☺OL Centre for social entrepreneurship Bikaner  M: 9414430763 [email_address] www.after...
How do you collect data?  <ul><li>Two sources : Primary and secondary  </li></ul>
What is primary data?  <ul><li>Data collected by the researcher first hand for the purpose of research only.  </li></ul>
What is secondary data?  <ul><li>Data collected by someone else for someother purpose.  </li></ul>
Can we use secondary data?  <ul><li>Yes – but we have to give reference of that data.  </li></ul>
What are the sources of primary data?  <ul><li>Observation, </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule </l...
What sample? <ul><li>We cannot collect data from each unit due to time and resource constraint, so we go for a small size ...
What is questionnaire?  <ul><li>When we collect data from the field, we use questionnaire. There are two types of question...
Types of questionnaire?  <ul><li>Disguised (where your identity and purpose is hidden).  </li></ul><ul><li>Non-disguised (...
Difference between questionnaire and schedules?  <ul><li>Questinnaire can be administered by mail, email, person, or other...
Guidelines for questionnaire construction?  <ul><li>Simple questions </li></ul><ul><li>Easy questions </li></ul><ul><li>Nu...
What is pilot survey?  <ul><li>When we prepare questionnaire, first we have to undertake a pilot test of that questionnair...
How many types of questions are possible?  <ul><li>Yes – no questions </li></ul><ul><li>Objective quesitons </li></ul><ul>...
Sources of secondary data?  <ul><li>2 sources:  </li></ul><ul><li>Published (reports, surveys, publications etc.) </li></u...
What should be the precautions in using secondary data?  <ul><li>Ensure that data are reliable, </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure t...
How will you edit data?  <ul><li>When you collect data, you have to arrange the data and there will be many mistakes / lef...
Mention the law on which sampling is based?  <ul><li>Law of statistical regularity </li></ul><ul><li>Law of inertia of lar...
What is Law of statistical regularity <ul><li>Take the example of toss, over a long period of time, there will be ½ probab...
What is law of inertia of large numbers?  <ul><li>Larger the size of sample, more accurate the results are likely to be . ...
What should be qualities in a good sample?  <ul><li>Adequate </li></ul><ul><li>Representative of population </li></ul><ul>...
What are the methods of sampling?  <ul><li>Probability sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Non-probability sampling  </li></ul>
What is Probability sampling? <ul><li>When each element from population has equal probability of selection, it is called p...
What is Non Probability sampling <ul><li>We have various methods of non-probability sampling , some of them are: </li></ul...
What is judgment sampling? <ul><li>Here sample depends exclusively on the judgment of investigator / experts. </li></ul><u...
What is convenience sampling?  <ul><li>When we select sample based on our convenience, it is called convenience sampling. ...
Which is better probability / non-probability sampling?  <ul><li>For most researches probability sampling is better.  </li...
What are the limitations in probability sampling?  <ul><li>Lot of time, and resources are required </li></ul><ul><li>You h...
What is chunk?  <ul><li>It is also called convenience sample. The fraction of population that we have chosen on our conven...
Name two samplings which are similar, but one is probability and one is non-probability?  <ul><li>Quota sampling and strat...
What is stratified sampling?  <ul><li>First divide population into strata and then take a sample from each strata purely o...
What is quota sampling?  <ul><li>First divide population into strata and then take a sample from each strata based on the ...
When can you use table of random numbers?  <ul><li>You may use it for random sampling. You may use excel command for findi...
What is a strata?  <ul><li>Strata is a group of units, who have similarity. Two strata are different. Thus there is homoge...
What is proportional and disproportional stratified sampling?  <ul><li>In proportional stratified sample, we have sample i...
Mention sampling errors <ul><li>Biased errors: when there is bias in selection, it is called biased error.  </li></ul><ul>...
What is parameter?  <ul><li>A single value to describe characteristics of a population </li></ul>
What is complete enumeration?  <ul><li>When we study the entire population, it is called complete enumeration. It is also ...
What is non-sampling error <ul><li>There are many reasons for this :  </li></ul><ul><li>Facult in observation </li></ul><u...
What is a stub?  <ul><li>It is designation of the row or row heading in a table. </li></ul>
What are the roots of the word statistics?  <ul><li>Latin word status </li></ul><ul><li>German word statistik </li></ul><u...
Who carried out first census?  <ul><li>Pharaoh (kings in Egypt) during 2000 BC to 300 BC.  </li></ul>
ABOUT AFTERSCHO☺OL  <ul><li>Afterschoool conducts three year integrated PGPSE (after class  12 th   along with  IAS / CA /...
Why such a programme? <ul><li>To promote people to take up entrepreneurship and help develop the society </li></ul><ul><li...
Who are our supporters? <ul><li>Afterschoolians, our past beneficiaries, entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurs are suppor...
About AFTERSCHO☺OL  PGPSE – the best programme for developing great entrepreneurs <ul><li>Most flexible, adaptive but rigo...
Workshops from AFTERSCHO☺OL  <ul><li>IIF, Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>CIPS, Jaipur </li></ul><ul><li>ICSI Hyderabad Branch </l...
Flexible Specialisations: <ul><li>Spiritualising business and society </li></ul><ul><li>Rural development and transformati...
Salient features: <ul><li>The only programme of its kind (in the whole world) </li></ul><ul><li>No publicity and low profi...
Components  <ul><li>Pedagogy curriculum and approach based on IIM Ahmedabad and ISB Hyderabad (the founder is alumnus from...
Pedagogy  <ul><li>Case analysis, </li></ul><ul><li>Articles from Harvard Business Review  </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz, seminars...
Branches <ul><li>AFTERSCHO☺OL  will shortly open its branches in important cities in India including Delhi, Kota, Mumbai, ...
Case Studies <ul><li>We want to write case studies on social entrepreneurs, first generation entrepreneurs, ethical entrep...
Basic values at AFTERSCHO☺OL  <ul><li>Share to learn more </li></ul><ul><li>Interact to develop yourself </li></ul><ul><li...
www.afterschoool.tk   social entrepreneurship for better society
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Management Aptitude Test 11 October

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Management Aptitude Test 11 October

  1. 1. STATISTICS AFTERSCHO☺OL – DEVELOPING CHANGE MAKERS CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP PGPSE PROGRAMME – World’ Most Comprehensive programme in social entrepreneurship & spiritual entrepreneurship OPEN FOR ALL FREE FOR ALL
  2. 2. STATISTICS Dr. T.K. Jain. AFTERSCHO☺OL Centre for social entrepreneurship Bikaner M: 9414430763 [email_address] www.afterschool.tk , www.afterschoool.tk
  3. 3. How do you collect data? <ul><li>Two sources : Primary and secondary </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is primary data? <ul><li>Data collected by the researcher first hand for the purpose of research only. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is secondary data? <ul><li>Data collected by someone else for someother purpose. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Can we use secondary data? <ul><li>Yes – but we have to give reference of that data. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What are the sources of primary data? <ul><li>Observation, </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What sample? <ul><li>We cannot collect data from each unit due to time and resource constraint, so we go for a small size out of total population. For example, for exit poll, instead of 60 crore people in India (willing to give vote), we may contact only 6000 and try to draw the results. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is questionnaire? <ul><li>When we collect data from the field, we use questionnaire. There are two types of questionnaire: </li></ul><ul><li>1. structured </li></ul><ul><li>2. unstructured </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURED questionnaire has well planned and well designed questions which we ask (there is no fixed format in unstructured questionnaire). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of questionnaire? <ul><li>Disguised (where your identity and purpose is hidden). </li></ul><ul><li>Non-disguised (where you identity and purpose is disclosed). </li></ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul><ul><li>Non-structured </li></ul>
  11. 11. Difference between questionnaire and schedules? <ul><li>Questinnaire can be administered by mail, email, person, or otherwise also. Schedule are filled by the enumerator himself / herself. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire are filled by respondent, but schedule is filled by the enumerator. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Guidelines for questionnaire construction? <ul><li>Simple questions </li></ul><ul><li>Easy questions </li></ul><ul><li>Number of questions should be limited </li></ul><ul><li>Questions should be properly arranged (in logical order). </li></ul><ul><li>Personal questions should be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>There should be more of objective and closed questions </li></ul>
  13. 13. What is pilot survey? <ul><li>When we prepare questionnaire, first we have to undertake a pilot test of that questionnaire, which is must. The pupose is to identify mistakes if any. After pilot survey, we prepare the final questionnaire and submit it to people. </li></ul>
  14. 14. How many types of questions are possible? <ul><li>Yes – no questions </li></ul><ul><li>Objective quesitons </li></ul><ul><li>Open questions </li></ul><ul><li>Closed questions </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple choice questions </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sources of secondary data? <ul><li>2 sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Published (reports, surveys, publications etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Unpublished </li></ul>
  16. 16. What should be the precautions in using secondary data? <ul><li>Ensure that data are reliable, </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that data are suitable to you for your purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t copy without reference </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t violate copyright law </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t change data without understanding their context. </li></ul>
  17. 17. How will you edit data? <ul><li>When you collect data, you have to arrange the data and there will be many mistakes / left outs. </li></ul><ul><li>Data should be complete, consistent, homogenous so that comparison be made. So edit the data before analysis. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mention the law on which sampling is based? <ul><li>Law of statistical regularity </li></ul><ul><li>Law of inertia of large numbers </li></ul>
  19. 19. What is Law of statistical regularity <ul><li>Take the example of toss, over a long period of time, there will be ½ probability that you will get a head when you toss. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have a large group of data, and if you choose the data randomly, over a period of time there will be a certain probability that will surely happen due to consistency. </li></ul>
  20. 20. What is law of inertia of large numbers? <ul><li>Larger the size of sample, more accurate the results are likely to be . </li></ul>
  21. 21. What should be qualities in a good sample? <ul><li>Adequate </li></ul><ul><li>Representative of population </li></ul><ul><li>Homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul>
  22. 22. What are the methods of sampling? <ul><li>Probability sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Non-probability sampling </li></ul>
  23. 23. What is Probability sampling? <ul><li>When each element from population has equal probability of selection, it is called probability sampling. </li></ul><ul><li>This is also called random sampling </li></ul><ul><li>It is like when you draw a lottery (each ticket has equal probability). </li></ul><ul><li>We have various types of probabiity sampling methods like: stratified sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling etc. </li></ul>
  24. 24. What is Non Probability sampling <ul><li>We have various methods of non-probability sampling , some of them are: </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Judgement sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Quota sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  25. 25. What is judgment sampling? <ul><li>Here sample depends exclusively on the judgment of investigator / experts. </li></ul><ul><li>There are some criteria on the basis of judgment is taken. </li></ul>
  26. 26. What is convenience sampling? <ul><li>When we select sample based on our convenience, it is called convenience sampling. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Which is better probability / non-probability sampling? <ul><li>For most researches probability sampling is better. </li></ul>
  28. 28. What are the limitations in probability sampling? <ul><li>Lot of time, and resources are required </li></ul><ul><li>You have to be more systematic in comparison to non-probability sampling </li></ul><ul><li>You have to enumerate entire population and find out the entire population and list it down. </li></ul>
  29. 29. What is chunk? <ul><li>It is also called convenience sample. The fraction of population that we have chosen on our convenience is called chunk. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Name two samplings which are similar, but one is probability and one is non-probability? <ul><li>Quota sampling and stratified sampling. </li></ul><ul><li>Quota sampling and stratified sampling are very similar. </li></ul>
  31. 31. What is stratified sampling? <ul><li>First divide population into strata and then take a sample from each strata purely on random. </li></ul>
  32. 32. What is quota sampling? <ul><li>First divide population into strata and then take a sample from each strata based on the judgement of researchers. </li></ul>
  33. 33. When can you use table of random numbers? <ul><li>You may use it for random sampling. You may use excel command for finding random numbers also for generating random numbers and then select random sampling. </li></ul>
  34. 34. What is a strata? <ul><li>Strata is a group of units, who have similarity. Two strata are different. Thus there is homogeneity between strata but difference between two strata. </li></ul>
  35. 35. What is proportional and disproportional stratified sampling? <ul><li>In proportional stratified sample, we have sample in exact proportion to the actual population but it is not so in disproportional sampling. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: if upper class is 10%, the sample will also be 10% from upper class. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Mention sampling errors <ul><li>Biased errors: when there is bias in selection, it is called biased error. </li></ul><ul><li>Bias means preconceived notions / some misconceptions / false beliefs / unreasonable assumptions. </li></ul>
  37. 37. What is parameter? <ul><li>A single value to describe characteristics of a population </li></ul>
  38. 38. What is complete enumeration? <ul><li>When we study the entire population, it is called complete enumeration. It is also called census survey. </li></ul>
  39. 39. What is non-sampling error <ul><li>There are many reasons for this : </li></ul><ul><li>Facult in observation </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of trained observers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of inadequate inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of proper data processing </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent data specification </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  40. 40. What is a stub? <ul><li>It is designation of the row or row heading in a table. </li></ul>
  41. 41. What are the roots of the word statistics? <ul><li>Latin word status </li></ul><ul><li>German word statistik </li></ul><ul><li>French word Statistique </li></ul>
  42. 42. Who carried out first census? <ul><li>Pharaoh (kings in Egypt) during 2000 BC to 300 BC. </li></ul>
  43. 43. ABOUT AFTERSCHO☺OL <ul><li>Afterschoool conducts three year integrated PGPSE (after class 12 th along with IAS / CA / CS ) and 18 month PGPSE (Post Graduate Programme in Social Entrepreneurship) along with preparation for CS / CFP / CFA /CMA / FRM . This course is also available online also. It also conducts workshops on social entrepreneurship in schools and colleges all over India – start social entrepreneurship club in your institution today with the help from afterschoool and help us in developing society. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Why such a programme? <ul><li>To promote people to take up entrepreneurship and help develop the society </li></ul><ul><li>To enable people to take up franchising and other such options to start a business / social development project </li></ul><ul><li>To enable people to take up social development as their mission </li></ul><ul><li>To enable people to promote spirituality and positive thinking in the world </li></ul>
  45. 45. Who are our supporters? <ul><li>Afterschoolians, our past beneficiaries, entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurs are supporting us. </li></ul><ul><li>You can also support us – not necessarily by money – but by being promotor of our concept and our ideas. </li></ul>
  46. 46. About AFTERSCHO☺OL PGPSE – the best programme for developing great entrepreneurs <ul><li>Most flexible, adaptive but rigorous programme </li></ul><ul><li>Available in distance learning mode </li></ul><ul><li>Case study focused- latest cases </li></ul><ul><li>Industry oriented practical curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to make you entrepreneurs – not just an employee </li></ul><ul><li>Option to take up part time job – so earn while you learn </li></ul><ul><li>The only absolutely free course on internet </li></ul>
  47. 47. Workshops from AFTERSCHO☺OL <ul><li>IIF, Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>CIPS, Jaipur </li></ul><ul><li>ICSI Hyderabad Branch </li></ul><ul><li>Gyan Vihar, Jaipur </li></ul><ul><li>Apex Institute of Management, Jaipur </li></ul><ul><li>Aravali Institute of Management, Jodhpur </li></ul><ul><li>Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneshwar </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Institute, Udaipur </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering College, Hyderabad </li></ul>
  48. 48. Flexible Specialisations: <ul><li>Spiritualising business and society </li></ul><ul><li>Rural development and transformation </li></ul><ul><li>HRD and Education, Social Development </li></ul><ul><li>NGO and voluntary work </li></ul><ul><li>Investment analysis,microfinance and inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Retail sector, BPO, KPO </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting & Information system (with CA / CS /CMA) </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital management and Health care </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitality sector and culture and heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Other sectors of high growth, high technology and social relevance </li></ul>
  49. 49. Salient features: <ul><li>The only programme of its kind (in the whole world) </li></ul><ul><li>No publicity and low profile course </li></ul><ul><li>For those who want to achieve success in life – not just a degree </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible – you may stay for a month and continue the rest of the education by distance mode. / you may attend weekend classes </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarships for those from poor economic background </li></ul><ul><li>Latest and constantly changing curriculum – keeping pace with the time </li></ul><ul><li>Placement for those who are interested </li></ul><ul><li>Admissions open throughout the year </li></ul><ul><li>Latest and most advanced technologies, books and study material </li></ul>
  50. 50. Components <ul><li>Pedagogy curriculum and approach based on IIM Ahmedabad and ISB Hyderabad (the founder is alumnus from IIMA & ISB Hyderabad) </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation, spiritualisation, and self development </li></ul><ul><li>Essential softwares for business </li></ul><ul><li>Business plan, Research projects </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in conferences / seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops on leadership, team building etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Written submissions of research projects/articles / papers </li></ul><ul><li>Interview of entrepreneurs, writing biographies of entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Editing of journals / newsletters </li></ul><ul><li>Consultancy / research projects </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments, communication skill workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in conferences and seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussions, mock interviews, self development diaryng </li></ul><ul><li>Mind Power Training & writing workshop (by Dr. T.K.Jain) </li></ul>
  51. 51. Pedagogy <ul><li>Case analysis, </li></ul><ul><li>Articles from Harvard Business Review </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz, seminars, workshops, games, </li></ul><ul><li>Visits to entrepreneurs and industrial visits </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations, Latest audio-visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussions and group projects </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic self assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring and counselling </li></ul><ul><li>Study exchange programme (with institutions out of India) </li></ul><ul><li>Rural development / Social welfare projects </li></ul>
  52. 52. Branches <ul><li>AFTERSCHO☺OL will shortly open its branches in important cities in India including Delhi, Kota, Mumbai, Gurgaon and other important cities. Afterschooolians will be responsible for managing and developing these branches – and for promoting social entrepreneurs. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Case Studies <ul><li>We want to write case studies on social entrepreneurs, first generation entrepreneurs, ethical entrepreneurs. Please help us in this process. Help us to be in touch with entrepreneurs, so that we may develop entrepreneurs. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Basic values at AFTERSCHO☺OL <ul><li>Share to learn more </li></ul><ul><li>Interact to develop yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Fear is your worst enemy </li></ul><ul><li>Make mistakes to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Study & discuss in a group </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism is the healthy route to mutual support and help </li></ul><ul><li>Ask fundamental questions : why, when, how & where? </li></ul><ul><li>Embrace change – and compete with yourself only </li></ul>
  55. 55. www.afterschoool.tk social entrepreneurship for better society

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