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# Magic Maths6 Oct

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### Magic Maths6 Oct

1. 1. Financial Analysis AFTERSCHOOOL – DEVELOPING CHANGE MAKERS CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP PGPSE PROGRAMME – World’ Most Comprehensive programme in social entrepreneurship & spiritual entrepreneurship OPEN FOR ALL FREE FOR ALL
2. 2. Financial Analysis Dr. T.K. Jain. AFTERSCHOOOL Centre for social entrepreneurship Bikaner M: 9414430763 [email_address] www.afterschool.tk www.afterschoool.tk
3. 3. Operating income of my company is 1.86 lakhs. We pay 35% tax. Our capital structure consists of 14% debenture of 4 lakh and 15% preference shares of Rs. 5 lakh and equality shares of Rs. 4 lakh (100 each), what is my EPS? <ul><li>Step 1. (deduct interest and tax) Income (minus interest) – tax = 1.86 ( - .56) – (.35 of 1.3) = 1.3-.455 = .845 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 : deduct preference dividend) = .845 – (preference dividend .75) = .095 lakkhs </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3 : divide by number of shares. </li></ul><ul><li>9500 / 4000 = 2.3 approx. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest on debenure = .14*4 = .56 lakhs. </li></ul>
4. 4. Operating income of my company is 1.86 lakhs. We pay 35% tax. Our capital structure consists of 14% debenture of 4 lakh and 15% preference shares of Rs. 5 lakh and equality shares of Rs. 4 lakh (100 each), what is my DFL? <ul><li>DFL = Degree of Financial Leverage </li></ul><ul><li>DFL = EBIT / (EBIT – Int. – (Dividend on preference / 1-tax) ) </li></ul><ul><li>=1.86 / (1.86 - .56 – (.75/.65)) </li></ul><ul><li>=1.86 / (1.3 – 1.15) </li></ul><ul><li>=1.86 / .15 = 12.4 (it is very risky company). Ans. </li></ul>
5. 5. My sales are Rs. 25 lakhs and my fixed costs are Rs. 7.5 lakhs. Variable expenses are 50% of sales. What is my DOL? <ul><li>DOL = Degree of Operating Leverage. </li></ul><ul><li>DOL = (Sales – Variable expenses ) / EBIT </li></ul><ul><li>EBIT = (sales – all expenses) = 25 – (7.5+12.5) = 5 lakhs </li></ul><ul><li>= (25-12.5) / 5 </li></ul><ul><li>=12.5 / 5 = 2.5 (my business risk is not very high – if DOL had been more, my business risk would have been higher). </li></ul><ul><li>EBIT = Earning before interest and taxes </li></ul>
6. 6. I want to buy a new business, the sales in that is 20 lakhs, fixed expenses are 15 lakhs and variable expenses are 12% of sales. Is the decision to buy the business appropriate on the business risk criteria? (I don’t want to take high risk) <ul><li>DOL = (sales – Variable exp) / EBIT </li></ul><ul><li>= (20-2.4) / (20-(15+2.4)) </li></ul><ul><li>=17.6 / 2.6 </li></ul><ul><li>=6.76 (which is high risk) </li></ul>
7. 7. EBIT is 1200 lakhs, EBT is 320 lakhs and Fixed costs are 700 lakhs. What is DCL? What is interest coverage? <ul><li>DCL = degree of combined leverage </li></ul><ul><li>It is calculated by any of two methods: </li></ul><ul><li>DCL = DOL * DFL </li></ul><ul><li>Or DCL = Contribution / EBT </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution = Sales – variable cost </li></ul><ul><li>(Sales – Variable cost ) = EBIT + Fixed cost. = 1200 + 700 = 1900. </li></ul><ul><li>1900 / 320 = 5.93 answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest coverage = EBIT / Interest </li></ul><ul><li>=1200 / (1200-320) = 1200 / 880 = 1.36 ans. </li></ul>
8. 9. As an investor, I have 2 options, in which I get 6000 after 1 year in another, I get 9000 after 4 years. Discount rate is 10%. Which option is better? <ul><li>6000 after one year mean 6000/ (1.1)^1 today, thus I have 5454 today. </li></ul><ul><li>9000 after 4 years mean 9000/ (1.1)^4 means 6147, thus second option is better. </li></ul>
9. 10. As an investor, I have 2 options, in which I get 6000 after 1 year in another, I get 9000 after 4 years. Discount rate is 20%. Which option is better? <ul><li>6000 after one year mean 6000/ (1.2)^1 today, thus I have 4999 today. </li></ul><ul><li>9000 after 4 years mean 9000/ (1.2)^4 means 4340, thus 1 st option is better. </li></ul>
10. 11. As an investor, I have 2 options, in which I get 6000 after 2 year in another, I get 9000 after 5 years. Discount rate is 18%. Which option is better? <ul><li>6000 after 2 year mean 6000/ (1.18)^2 today, thus I have 4316 today. </li></ul><ul><li>9000 after 5 years mean 9000/ (1.18)^5 means 3933 , thus 1 st option is better. </li></ul>
11. 12. I will need 100 crores after 5 years from now. How much money should I deposit in my bank account every year? Rate : 10% <ul><li>Amt ((1+interest rate)^N – 1) / rate of interest) = future value of amount. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus Amt ((1.1)^5 -1)/.1 = 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Or amt (.61/.1) = 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Or amount = 100/6.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Or amount = 16.38 approximate every year. </li></ul>
12. 13. My equity capital is 60 lakh, debt is 40 lakh. Beta of my stocks is 1.5, risk premium in the market = 10% and treasury bill is at 8%. What is my cost of capital ? <ul><li>Treasury bill (govt. bill) have risk free interest = so risk free rate of return is 8%. </li></ul><ul><li>Market rate = risk free rate + risk premium </li></ul><ul><li>CAPM = capital asset pricing model </li></ul><ul><li>CAPM fomulae : Risk free rate + Beta * (Market rate – risk free rate) </li></ul><ul><li>=8 + 1.5* (18-8) =8 + 15 = 23 %. </li></ul>
13. 14. Risk free rate = 7.75%, Beta = 2, Market rate = 16%. Calculate cost of capital using CAPM? <ul><li>CAPM = capital asset pricing model </li></ul><ul><li>CAPM fomulae : Risk free rate + Beta * (Market rate – risk free rate) </li></ul><ul><li>=7.75 + 2 (16-7.75) </li></ul><ul><li>=24.25 answer. </li></ul>
14. 15. Risk free rate = 7.75%, Beta = 2, My cost of capital = 16%. Calculate market rate of returns using CAPM? <ul><li>CAPM fomulae : Risk free rate + Beta * (Market rate – risk free rate) </li></ul><ul><li>=16= 7.75 +2 (Market rate – 7.75) </li></ul><ul><li>=16-7.75 = 2M – 15.5 </li></ul><ul><li>=8.25 +15.5 = 2M </li></ul><ul><li>M = 11.78 answer. </li></ul>
15. 16. If Market rate is 14%, risk free rate is 8.25% and my cost of capital is 18%. What is my BETA? <ul><li>CAPM fomulae cost of capital = : Risk free rate + Beta * (Market rate – risk free rate) </li></ul><ul><li>18 = 8.25 + Beta (14-8.25) </li></ul><ul><li>18-8.25= beta (5.75) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta = 9.75 / 5.75 = 1.7 answer. </li></ul>
16. 17. You have invested your money in four sectors. The average returns are 18, 18, 24 and 16 respectively. Your beta of these sectors are .9, 1.12, 1.5, .95. which is best sector? Risk free return = 10 and market return = 18% <ul><li>Expected returns = RF + Beta(RM-RF) </li></ul><ul><li>=10+.9(18-10) = 10+7.2 = 17.2 so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus we get expected returns for these four sectors which are 17.2, 19, 22 and 17.6. Thus third sector has outperformed in comparison to expectations (24-22 = 2) </li></ul>
17. 18. Solution . . . . <ul><li>We get 18% in comparison to 17.2 in the first sector, thus it is very profitable (by .8) </li></ul><ul><li>In second sector, we get 18% but expectation is 19%, so it is not upto the mark. Third sector is the best performing sector. </li></ul>
18. 19. I shall get 100 crore after 5 years (from afterschooolians), what is the value of that today? Rate = 10% <ul><li>= 100 / (1+interest rate)^n </li></ul><ul><li>=100/ (1.1)^5 </li></ul><ul><li>=100/1.61 </li></ul><ul><li>=62.11 approximate. </li></ul>
19. 20. ABOUT AFTERSCHOOOL <ul><li>Afterschoool conducts three year integrated PGPSE (after class 12 th along with IAS / CA / CS ) and 18 month PGPSE (Post Graduate Programme in Social Entrepreneurship) along with preparation for CS / CFP / CFA /CMA / FRM . This course is also available online also. It also conducts workshops on social entrepreneurship in schools and colleges all over India – start social entrepreneurship club in your institution today with the help from afterschoool and help us in developing society. </li></ul>
20. 21. Why such a programme? <ul><li>To promote people to take up entrepreneurship and help develop the society </li></ul><ul><li>To enable people to take up franchising and other such options to start a business / social development project </li></ul><ul><li>To enable people to take up social development as their mission </li></ul><ul><li>To enable people to promote spirituality and positive thinking in the world </li></ul>
21. 22. Who are our supporters? <ul><li>Afterschoolians, our past beneficiaries, entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurs are supporting us. </li></ul><ul><li>You can also support us – not necessarily by money – but by being promotor of our concept and our ideas. </li></ul>
22. 23. About AFTERSCHOOOL PGPSE – the best programme for developing great entrepreneurs <ul><li>Most flexible, adaptive but rigorous programme </li></ul><ul><li>Available in distance learning mode </li></ul><ul><li>Case study focused- latest cases </li></ul><ul><li>Industry oriented practical curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to make you entrepreneurs – not just an employee </li></ul><ul><li>Option to take up part time job – so earn while you learn </li></ul><ul><li>The only absolutely free course on internet </li></ul>
23. 24. Workshops from AFTERSCHOOOL <ul><li>IIF, Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>CIPS, Jaipur </li></ul><ul><li>ICSI Hyderabad Branch </li></ul><ul><li>Gyan Vihar, Jaipur </li></ul><ul><li>Apex Institute of Management, Jaipur </li></ul><ul><li>Aravali Institute of Management, Jodhpur </li></ul><ul><li>Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneshwar </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Institute, Udaipur </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering College, Hyderabad </li></ul>
24. 25. Flexible Specialisations: <ul><li>Spiritualising business and society </li></ul><ul><li>Rural development and transformation </li></ul><ul><li>HRD and Education, Social Development </li></ul><ul><li>NGO and voluntary work </li></ul><ul><li>Investment analysis,microfinance and inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Retail sector, BPO, KPO </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting & Information system (with CA / CS /CMA) </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital management and Health care </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitality sector and culture and heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Other sectors of high growth, high technology and social relevance </li></ul>
25. 26. Salient features: <ul><li>The only programme of its kind (in the whole world) </li></ul><ul><li>No publicity and low profile course </li></ul><ul><li>For those who want to achieve success in life – not just a degree </li></ul><ul><li>Indepth knowledge and expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Professional approac: World class approach </li></ul><ul><li>Strong intellectual and business capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible – you may stay for a month and continue the rest of the education by distance mode. / you may attend weekend classes </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarships for those from poor economic background </li></ul><ul><li>Latest and constantly changing curriculum – keeping pace with the time </li></ul><ul><li>Placement for those who are interested </li></ul><ul><li>Admissions open throughout the year </li></ul><ul><li>Latest and most advanced technologies, books and study material </li></ul>
26. 27. Components <ul><li>Pedagogy curriculum and approach based on IIM Ahmedabad and ISB Hyderabad (the founder is alumnus from IIMA & ISB Hyderabad) </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation, spiritualisation, and self development </li></ul><ul><li>Essential softwares for business </li></ul><ul><li>Business plan, Research projects </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in conferences / seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops on leadership, team building etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Written submissions of research projects/articles / papers </li></ul><ul><li>Interview of entrepreneurs, writing biographies of entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Editing of journals / newsletters </li></ul><ul><li>Consultancy / research projects </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments, communication skill workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in conferences and seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussions, mock interviews, self development diaryng </li></ul><ul><li>Mind Power Training & writing workshop (by Dr. T.K.Jain) </li></ul>
27. 28. Pedagogy <ul><li>Case analysis, </li></ul><ul><li>Articles from Harvard Business Review </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz, seminars, workshops, games, </li></ul><ul><li>Visits to entrepreneurs and industrial visits </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations, Latest audio-visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussions and group projects </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic self assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring and counselling </li></ul><ul><li>Study exchange programme (with institutions out of India) </li></ul><ul><li>Rural development / Social welfare projects </li></ul>
28. 29. Branches <ul><li>AFTERSCHOOOL will shortly open its branches in important cities in India including Delhi, Kota, Mumbai, Gurgaon and other important cities. Afterschooolians will be responsible for managing and developing these branches – and for promoting social entrepreneurs. </li></ul>
29. 30. Case Studies <ul><li>We want to write case studies on social entrepreneurs, first generation entrepreneurs, ethical entrepreneurs. Please help us in this process. Help us to be in touch with entrepreneurs, so that we may develop entrepreneurs. </li></ul>
30. 31. Basic values at afterschoool <ul><li>Share to learn more </li></ul><ul><li>Interact to develop yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Fear is your worst enemy </li></ul><ul><li>Make mistakes to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Study & discuss in a group </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism is the healthy route to mutual support and help </li></ul><ul><li>Ask fundamental questions : why, when, how & where? </li></ul><ul><li>Embrace change – and compete with yourself only </li></ul>
31. 32. www.afterschoool.tk social entrepreneurship for better society