JOB DESIGNING by : DR. T.K. JAIN AFTERSCHO ☺ OL centre for social entrepreneurship sivakamu veterinary hospital road bikaner 334001 rajasthan, india FOR – PGPSE / CSE PARTICIPANTS [email_address] mobile : 91+9414430763
My words..... My purpose here is to give an introduction of Job designing I welcome your suggestions. I also request you to help me in spreading social entrepreneurship across the globe – for which I need support of you people – not of any VIP. With your help, I can spread the ideas – for which we stand....
What is semantic differential scale ? Osgood, Suci , Tanxenbaum (1957) popularised this concept. Here we used two opposite concepts to identify the perception of the respondent example : how do you like the job of manager productive _1_- 3- - 5- - 7- -9 unproductive challenging1_- 3- - 5- - 7- -9 routine
What is summative scale ? It is also called Likert scale (1932) here we prepare a number of statement and ask the person to give rating for those statements the rating may be from most favourable to most unfavourable. The statements are prepared on the basis of a sample of statements, which have ability to differentiate people it is the most popular attitude measurement scale
How to study organisational culture / climate / job satisfaction? We can use following : questionnaire scale (like litert scale) HRD climate survey FIRO-B http://www.cpp.com/products/firo-b/index.aspx DIAGNOSIS STUDIES
How to use these resources ? These resources consist of questionnaire / scales which are given to the employees, who fill them up and then we analyse these and try to find the level of job satisfaction / HRD climate etc.
What are the various OD exercises that we can use ? Grid training Role analysis action research TQM BPR MBO T-GROUP Team building intergroup development
How should organisations restructure ? Undertake organisational analysis using various perspectives like : 1. economic analysis 2. political analysis 3. behavioural science analysis 4. sociological analysis / sociometry 5. culture / climate studies
What are the key dimensions of a good culture / climate / ethos ? Level of openness level of collaboration level of trust and suppor level of autonomy and freedom level of proaction in the organisation support for creativity and experimentation level of centrality / peripheral status of employee
What is action research ? It was developed by Kurt Levin in 1947. It is a tool for organisational study, and organisation development here we are using two things : action (change in organisation, development, collective efforts for organistional development) and research (interaction with people to know about what they like and what they dont and their perspective about how to develop organisation)
What is grid traininig? Blake and Mouton popularised this. There are 6 different stages for development of the organisation in grid training here we start with individual and group development and then for the entire organisation. We develop people on 2 dimensions : 1. focus on goal / task / organisational purpose 2. focus on people / communication / human relations a person who is good in both these dimensions is a good leader
What is BPR ? Business process reengineering : it denotes radical change in the organisational processes and practices so that we are able to completely alter the way we work here we take help of computerisation / automation / reengineering etc.
What is TQM? Total quality management = it is a philosophy, where we install a system, which tries to deliver what is promised. There are detailed documentation at every stage so that people work as per systems and processes and there is very high level of precision, predictability and awareness across the organisation. People care for internal and external customers and try to meet the expectations of these.
What is role analysis / RAT /RNT ? Role analysis technique / role negotation technique / role contribution technique Role analysis enables organisations to study people processes in an organisation. Here we look into dimensions like how well the person understands his role, likes the role, feels empowered, finds resources / support to execute the role, and how well he is able to integrate the role. This technique has been popularised by Prof Udai Pareek and Prof. T.V. Rao in India
What is quality circle ? It is a Japanese management technique, where employees voluntarily form a quality circle, where they discuss about organisational quality problems and try to develop solutions for those issues and suggest them to the management. It works at the initiative of people
What is survey feedback ? Here we take survey of employees of what they think is important / challenging / problematic / critical issue relating to organisation. This data is then given back to people, so that they can plan to change the situation and improve the organisation it enables people to think about the ideal form of their organisation and enables them to play a proactive role in development of their own organisation
What is assessment centre ? Here employees gather for some time and many psychometric tests ar eused to assess and develop people. It is a tool for developing people, organisation and overall work culture. A number of tools and techniques are used under expert guidance in this method. All the employees gather at a specified location for this exercise for a few days. (to some extent similar to beauty contests)
What is zero base budgeting ? Here we start budgeting from scratch. We dont look at what we had done earlier, but what we want to do in future. It is futuristic not historic. Traditionally people just inflate the last year's budge and present it back, but zero base bugeting requires them to think afresh.
What is people analysis ? Here we study people processes in the organisation and we try to study people factors. Here we look at motivation, morale, efficiency, commitment of people so that we can develop the entire organisation
What is benchmarking ? Here we put an external / internal organisation as benchmark for the employees so that they can develop themselves in those lines and try to change the organisation / its processes / culture / techniques citibank tried to benchmark against the work culture and commitment of workers of SEWA in India when it entered in India. (read Dabbawala case study)
What is right sizing? When the organisation has excess manpower, they go for right sizing. Here they retrench / transfer / relocate / restructure so that they are able to have an appropriate shape of organisation right sizing is a better work for more negative words like retrenchment
What is in-basket ? It is a game / tool / technique for developing people / executives in organisation. Here employee is given a number of situation and he has to take decision on each of the situations. Executive receives a basket of papers / problems on which decisions must be taken. The executive tries to take decision and thereafter receives feedback about his decision from his seniors / experts / trainers.
What is force field analysis ? It is a tool for organisational study / organisational development / organisaitonal diagnosis here we identify forces which are in favour / against the change issue. Here we try to look at the strength of each force. Later we try to strengthen the forces in favour of change so that we may change the organisation. It is the most important tool for organisational change management
Prepare a schedule for assessment centre ? Day 1 : orientation day 2 : in – basket exercise day 3 : role play day 4 group discussion day 5 : analysis, counselling and announcements
What are diagnostic workshops ? These help us in developing people. In diagnostic workshops, we assess the competence of people
What is job designing ? Preparing a job design which is stimulating, interesting, motivating and challenging to the employee and adding aspects like skill variety, task identity,task significance, etc.
What is QWL ? Quality of work life when we are able to improve the quality of work life, improve work culture, work environment, it is called QWL
What is flexibilisation and casualisation Flexibilisation= Creating flexible work culture (employee can choose work as per his convenience) casualisation = here employer may or may not give job in this case, there is a casual job
What is ZERO HOUR ? Employer may not give job – during zero hour – it is part of casualisation
What is Macdonaldisation? Here the job is broken in small components and each worker is trained in one small component and thus there is a possibility of replication of work on huge scale. Thus trained workers can produce in huge quantity. Jobs are systematically structured. Same working conditions and environment is created all over the world (it is similar to Taylorism of Scientific management)
What is commodification ? Today we find every product is being converted into commodities work is also converted to commodification by converting the work into a repeatitive activity
What is compressed workweek? Instead of 7 days work, just work for 4 day – but work more per day
Rescheduling work arrangement People can reschedule their time as per their requirements instead of 10 to 5 work, you may work 7 to 2
What is telecommuting ? Here a person can work while travelling or at home laptop and remove equipments help
What is job sharing ? Dividing the job between 2 or 3 persons to complete. Suppose a lady is having home responsibility, she may divide the work with another lady and continue her job and home responsibilities
What is call centre ? Here there is one organisation which provides BPO services and handles customer queries / grievences etc.
What are components of QWL Fair compensation good working condition opportunity for growth social integration human capability development social relevance of work life work and social life space
How to measure QWL? JOB INVOLVEMENT JOB SATISFACTION SENSE OF COMPETENCE SENCE OF ACCOMPLISHMENT PRODUCTIVITY REDUCED ABSENTEISM INCREASED MOTIVATION
Download links for material in english http://www.authorstream.com/presentation/tkjainbkn-146799-english-error-spotting-sentence-im-law-cat-gmat-mba-management-business-research-cfp-cfa-frm-cpa-ca-cs-icwa-india-rajasthan-improvement-entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/ http://www.docstoc.com/docs/3921499/ENGLISH-%E2%80%93-ERROR-SPOTTING-AND-SENTENCE-IMPROVEMENT http://www.slideshare.net/tkjainbkn/english-error-spotting-and-sentence-improvement-presentation http://www.scribd.com/doc/19641980/Error-Spotting http://www.scribd.com/doc/11629005/English-Error-Spotting-and-Sentence-Improvement http://www.scribd.com/doc/14660441/English-Afterschoool-23-May http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583519/English-Afterschoool-21-May http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583520/English-Afterschoool-21-May-2
Download links for material on English http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583315/English-Improvement-Afterschoool http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583518/English-20-May-Afterschoool http://www.scribd.com/doc/28531795/Mock-Paper-Cat-Rmat-Mat-Sbi-Bank-Po-Aptitude-Tests
Free download useful material ... http://www.scribd.com/doc/23393316/general-knowledge http://www.scribd.com/doc/23609752/Group-Discussion-Afterschoool http://www.scribd.com/doc/6583547/General-Knowledge-24-May
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