FUNDAMENTAL MANAGERIAL SKILLS FOR ENTREPRENEURS by : DR. T.K. JAIN AFTERSCHO ☺ OL centre for social entrepreneurship sivakamu veterinary hospital road bikaner 334001 rajasthan, india FOR – PGPSE PARTICIPANTS mobile : 91+9414430763
What is the relationship between organisational change and organisational development. OD is a long range well planned aproach to bring about change in organisational self-renewal processes, decision making skills , problem solving strategies and in overall values and beliefs of the organisation. Change is a part of OD. Change may be short term or long term, but OD is always long term. OD is always guided by experts in behavioural sciences (called change agents) – which is not necessary for change
What are the various levels of change likely to be necessary in an organisation. What type of resistance do the managers have to face at each of these levels? When you introduce change, people will always resist it – due to factors like their habit, their practice, their likings, rumours, vested interests etc. Change has to be started from top management. Then slowly middly and lower management will follow. Change should be well planned.
What is decentralisation? Discuss the main factors affecting the degree of decentralisation in an organisation. Decentralisation means that decision making is spread out throughout the organisation. It is a state where everyone is empowered to some extent. Every employee is given wide decision making powers as per his roles and he can take many decisions at his own level and inform the superiors. As against this in centralisation, decision making is mostly centralised and employees have to seek prior permission for taking even minor decisions. Decentralisation depends on factors like technical nature of work, urgency, level of competency of employees, etc.
Discuss the various forces of change operating within and outside the organisation. The forces within the organisation are : 1. self renewal processes 2. internal audit and review 3. business process reengineering 4. technological upgradation 5. cost cutting and OD forces outside the organisation are : 1. economic environment 2. social environment 3. technological environment 4. political situation 5. legal framework etc.
Given the inevitability of change and so its resistance, how would you overcome people’s resistance to change? People will always resist to change. There are many ways to overcome resistance of people like : 1. give them proper and adequate information 2. provide them proper training 3. give them assurance that the change will not be against them 4. logically link the change to their development. Study forcefield analysis and apply the forces in favour of change to bring about transformation.
Discuss OD as an intervention for planned change. Intervention means a course of action which unsettles the existing situation and brings about improvement in its processes. OD does it all for the development of the organisation. It uses behavioural science knowledge, process consultation, survey feedback and empowerment of employees to bring about significant changes in self renewal capacity, employee's self perception and willingness to bring transformation in the organisation.
“ Delegation is a must for decentralisation”. Delegation means that superiors give their decision making powers to their subordinates. Delegation is a process where by the superiors give responsibility and authority (both) to their subordinates along with required guidance, training and counselling. It is a process to develop subordinates. If there is delegation, there is a possibility of decentralisation also. Decentralisation means that in the whole organisation, delegation is practiced by everyone as much as possible.
Tall v/s flat organisation. Tall organisation means a very hierarchical organisation, it has lavers above layers and thus there is a long chain in the organisation. From top to the bottom you find a long chain. There is a possibility of distortion in communication due to long hierarchy. Flat organisation has a short hierarchy, their wide span of management, greater amount of freedom and decentralisation in this organisation. Flat organisations are the best for bringing about emplowerment across the organisation.
Explain briefly the principles of delegation. 1. authority should be = to responsibility 2. training before delegation 3. proper reporting and feedback system 4. constant motivation, clarification 5. remember – ultimate accoutability cannot be delegated 6. a delegatee cannot delegate – thus the person who has got a work from superiors, cannot delegate that work.
What are the main sources from which authority comes? Remember Chris Argyris – who said that authority comes from subordinates. Do your subordinates value you – if yes, you have authority over them, if they dont have respect for you, you dont have authority. Authority comes from your knowlede, expertise, capabilities, past experiences etc. It even comes from your references, your position power, your ability to give reward and punishment Authority means others are willing to do what you suggest.
What are the factors determining span of management? Span means how many subordinates can you effectively supervise and conrol. If your span is 6, it means you are supervising 6 subordinates. Span depends on technical nature of work, level of interaction required, level of complexity in the work, types of subordinates etc. If the organisation is really good, and work culture is very good, you can have a wider span also.
Explain the term “departmentation”. Dividing the total work in various groups of people and making each group an independent department is called departmentation. It is based on some logical criteria. Here we use criteria like type of work, technicality of the work etc. Generally departmentation is based on nature of function like marketing department, accounts department etc. However, there are other methods of departmentation also like : division, production, geography, projects etc.
Define Project Organisation Project is a time bound actionplan that is to be done to achieve some predetermined objectives. Project organisation is for achieving some objectives, and therefore here people are grouped under project head (not on the basis of function, but on the basis of project). The people work for a given time under one project, later they may be transferred to another project.
Compare Line, Functional and Line and Staff Organisation Line = those people who are in a authoriy to do some work and they are responsible for execution fo the work Functional : these people are grouped on the basis of the functions they perform – like marketing department ec. Staff : these people give advisory services and support to other departments. thus
What is matrix organisation ? When you design the departmentation of the organisation, you have many options like project, matrix, virtual etc. Matrix is more popular among those organisations which are involved in high technology, complex work processes. In matrix, each employee is supervised by two heads : 1. functional head and 2. vertical – project head. Thus there is dual supervision. There are rows and columns – as each project is having some employees who are drawn from different functional pools.
Example of matrix organisation ... Prject A Project B Project C Civil Deptt Electrical Deptt Accounts Deptt.
Advantages of matrix organisation Technical and functional expertise is used with the dedication of a project organisation people are fully devoted to their work and undertake their work with utmost devotion .
Write brief notes on: Job Analysis, Job Description and Job Specification. Job analysis : to systematically collect all the information related to a job so that we can plan for it, its position, its level and its structure in the organisation. Job specification : to identify the skills, qualification, experience, aptitude requirements for a particular job job description : to describe the job – what the employee has to do , when, how , in what circumstances.
differentiate between “training” and “development” of personnel. Training focuses on imparting technical skills, development focuses on imparting conceptual skills. Training gives results quickly, development is a life long process and we get rewards throughout the life. Training is technical in nature, development opens our mind, our thinking ability, and it enables us to have critical understanding of phenomenon. Training is required for lower level, development is required for higher and hihger level.
differentiate between structured and unstructured interviews. Structured means that the questions are fixed and the order is also fixed. Thus you are asking a few fixed questions without any change. Unstructured means that the question is framed instantly as per the situation. Thus here there is plenty of flexibility, adaptiveness, and it is more useful for higher level. You can ask the question based on the reply of the respondent.
What is meant by manpower planning (MPP / HRP) ? Planning for the manpower of the company – here you are planning about your manpower requirements – how much people will you require – after 5, 10 and 15 years and accordingly plan for those people – prepare recruitment, selection and development plans. While doing MPP you have to consider both macro and micro factors – at macro level find the total supply and demand of manpower and at micro level, prepare specific requirements in terms of skills, experience etc.
What are the steps involved in the staffing process. First of undertake HRP (Human Resource Planning) – identify your present and future manpower requirements – then accordingly prepare your manpower plans – then undertake recruitment, training and development plans. Once you have selected persons, orient them properly, train them, and give them proper assignment. Take their feedback about the work and let them settledown in their work. Give them full support in the initial phase – till they become pillers of your organisation.
What are the pros and cons of internal and external sources of recruitment of employees. Internal sources : from the existing manpower pool – here you are recruiting from within the existing pool of employees external sources : here you are going out of the organisation - you are recruiting through newspaper / website / campus / placement agency / career fare recruitment in case of internal recruitment – your training cost is reduced, the employees are aware of culture and values of the organisation and it is a way to motivate your employees
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