CONSIGNMENT AND JOINT VENTURE – ACCOUNTING ASPECTS  by :  DR. T.K. JAIN AFTERSCHO ☺ OL  centre for social entrepreneurship...
My words.... Here I present basic aspects of consignment and joint venture – accounting aspects .  I wish that more people...
What is consignment ?  When a business person sends his goods to someone else so that the other person can sell it out. It...
Who is consignor / consignee?  Cosignor = the person who sends the goods. He is the owner of the goods. He bears the risks...
What is the difference between sale and consignment ?  In sale, there is transfer of ownership. But in consignment, goods ...
What is proforma invoice ?  It is prepared by consignor  it accompanies goods – when goods are sent to consignee
What is account sales ?  It is prepared by consignee.  It shows the sales undertaken by consignee
What is the benefit to consignee ?  Consignee gets commission on goods sold. Suppose rate of commission is 10%, and consig...
What are consignment expenses ?  There are many expenses incurred in the process of consignment. When goods are despatched...
What is over-riding commission ?  Over-riding commission is allowed by the consignor to the consignee to promote sale at h...
How to valuate stock ?  Stocks (inventory) have to be valued at cost. Generally consignment is sent at invoice price. But ...
Example : A sent goods of invoice price 1200 to B. Which are lying in godown of B. What inventory will you show on 31/3/10...
What accounts are prepared by consignor ?  He prepares 2 accounts :  1. consignment to XYZ account 2. consignee account
What accounts are prepared by consignee ?  1. consignor account  2. conignment inward book
What entries are made by consignor while despatching goods ?  consignment account Dr. To Goods sent on consignment account
What entries are made by consignor when consignee sells goods ?  Consignee a/c debit  to consignment a/c
What entry is made by consignor when expenses are incurred by consignee ?  Consignment a/c debit  to consignee a/c credit
What entry is made by consignor when he himself incurs expenses ?  Consginment a/c debit  to bank a/c credit
What are the contents of consignment a/c ?  <ul><li>DEBIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>Opening stock  </li></ul><ul><li>All the ...
What are the contents of consignee account ?  <ul><li>DEBIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>Details of goods sold by consignee (con...
What accounting entry will be made when consignee receives goods from consignor ?  No accounting entry is required the con...
What accounting entry is required when consignee sells the goods (in the books of consignee) ?  Bank a/c Debit or Cash a/c...
What accounting entry is required when consignee spends  money on behalf of consignor (in the books of consignee) ?  Consi...
What accounting entry is required for closing stock  (in the books of consignor) ?  Stock in consignment a/c debit  to con...
What accounting entry is required for closing stock  (in the books of consignee) ?  No entry is required (as these goods a...
Solve this question  Eekshwanku sent to Eklavya 1,000 pieces of goods on consignment basis; one piece costing Rs. 230. Eek...
Consignment account  <ul><li>DEBIT  </li></ul><ul><li>To goods sent on consignment 230000 </li></ul><ul><li>To bank  1600 ...
Consignee account  <ul><li>DEBIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>To consignment a/c  (sale)  240000 </li></ul><ul><li>CREDIT SIDE  ...
Calculation of closing stock  While calculating closing stock, we add all the non-recurring expenses in the value of closi...
How to handle loss ?  <ul><li>There are two types of loss : 1 normal 2  abnormal loss  </li></ul><ul><li>we have separate ...
How to adjust normal loss in consignment ?  While calculating the value of stock on consignment, the cost is inflated to c...
1,000 tonnes of limestone is consigned @20 per tonne, freight thereon being Rs. 4,000.   the quantity sold is 600 tonnes a...
How to handle abnormal loss ?  There are two possibilities  :  1. loss is insured  2. loss is not insured  if loss is insu...
What is joint venture ?  When two or more firms / individual join together to work on a project, it is called joint ventur...
What is the difference between joint venture and partnership ?  Partnership has a new firm, with new name, new set up Part...
What are the systems of accounting in joint venture ?  There are 2 possibilities :  1. when separate books are maintained ...
when separate books are maintained Each party in the joint venture must have following accounts :  1. Joint Venture accoun...
Memorandum method  Here each party maintains following accounts :  1. Memorandum joint venture account  2. joint venture p...
Example  On 1st January 2007 B and C entered into a joint venture sharing the profits in the ratio of 3:2 after allowing a...
Joint venture accoung in the books of B  <ul><li>DEBIT SIDE  </li></ul><ul><li>To goods sent / Trading / purchase 5 lakh <...
Joint venture party a/c C's personal account (in the books of B )  <ul><li>DEBIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>Joint venture (Sal...
When separate books of accounts are maintained for joint venture ?  Here there are separate books of joint venture account...
Details of the accounts :  Joint Venture Account  : just like Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the venture showing ...
Example :  A and B  entered into a joint venture to construct a building of a new company. Profit and loss were to be shar...
Joint venture account  <ul><li>DEBIT  </li></ul><ul><li>To A  35000 </li></ul><ul><li>To B  15000 </li></ul><ul><li>To B  ...
Joint bank account  <ul><li>Debit  </li></ul><ul><li>To A  200000 </li></ul><ul><li>To B  100000 </li></ul><ul><li>To sale...
JOINT VENTURERS A/C  A  <ul><li>DEBIT  </li></ul><ul><li>To bank : 490000 </li></ul><ul><li>CREDIT  </li></ul><ul><li>By b...
JOINT VENTURERS A/C  B <ul><li>To bank : 310000 </li></ul><ul><li>Credit </li></ul><ul><li>By bank  100000 </li></ul><ul><...
THANKS.... GIVE YOUR SUGGESTIONS AND JOIN AFTERSCHOOOL NETWORK / START AFTERSCHOOOL SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP  NETWORK IN YO...
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Consignment and joint venture – accounting aspects

  1. 1. CONSIGNMENT AND JOINT VENTURE – ACCOUNTING ASPECTS by : DR. T.K. JAIN AFTERSCHO ☺ OL centre for social entrepreneurship sivakamu veterinary hospital road bikaner 334001 rajasthan, india FOR – PGPSE / CSE PARTICIPANTS mobile : 91+9414430763
  2. 2. My words.... Here I present basic aspects of consignment and joint venture – accounting aspects . I wish that more people should become entrepreneurs. An ordinary Indian entrepreneur wishes to remain an honest entrepreneur and contribute to the development of nation,let us support entrepreneurs ..
  3. 3. What is consignment ? When a business person sends his goods to someone else so that the other person can sell it out. It is consignment. The first person remains the owner, but the second person takes the possession and sells out the goods on behalf of the first person.
  4. 4. Who is consignor / consignee? Cosignor = the person who sends the goods. He is the owner of the goods. He bears the risks related to goods Consignee = who receives the goods. He tries to sell the goods on behalf of consignor
  5. 5. What is the difference between sale and consignment ? In sale, there is transfer of ownership. But in consignment, goods are sent, but ownership remains with the consignor and the consignee tries to sell the goods. In case of sale, goods generally dont come back. In consignment, unsold goods are taken back by consignor.
  6. 6. What is proforma invoice ? It is prepared by consignor it accompanies goods – when goods are sent to consignee
  7. 7. What is account sales ? It is prepared by consignee. It shows the sales undertaken by consignee
  8. 8. What is the benefit to consignee ? Consignee gets commission on goods sold. Suppose rate of commission is 10%, and consignee sells out goods of Rs. 4 lakhs. The commission of consignee is Rs. 40000. Consignor is bound to pay this commission
  9. 9. What are consignment expenses ? There are many expenses incurred in the process of consignment. When goods are despatched, there are carriage, freight, insurance and other expenses. All the expenses are borne by consignor .
  10. 10. What is over-riding commission ? Over-riding commission is allowed by the consignor to the consignee to promote sale at higher price than specified or to encourage consignee to put more work in introducing new product in the market.
  11. 11. How to valuate stock ? Stocks (inventory) have to be valued at cost. Generally consignment is sent at invoice price. But the stocks have to be shown at cost. So when consignor is preparing final accounts, adjustment has to be made from the stock to arrive at cost price.
  12. 12. Example : A sent goods of invoice price 1200 to B. Which are lying in godown of B. What inventory will you show on 31/3/10? Invoice price is 20% above cost. Here we have to prepare stock reserve account to adjust for the profit element in stock. 20/120 * 1200 = 200 so 200 will be transferred to stock reserve account. Thus inventory will be of (1200 – 200) = 1000 only in real terms (at cost).
  13. 13. What accounts are prepared by consignor ? He prepares 2 accounts : 1. consignment to XYZ account 2. consignee account
  14. 14. What accounts are prepared by consignee ? 1. consignor account 2. conignment inward book
  15. 15. What entries are made by consignor while despatching goods ? consignment account Dr. To Goods sent on consignment account
  16. 16. What entries are made by consignor when consignee sells goods ? Consignee a/c debit to consignment a/c
  17. 17. What entry is made by consignor when expenses are incurred by consignee ? Consignment a/c debit to consignee a/c credit
  18. 18. What entry is made by consignor when he himself incurs expenses ? Consginment a/c debit to bank a/c credit
  19. 19. What are the contents of consignment a/c ? <ul><li>DEBIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>Opening stock </li></ul><ul><li>All the expenses, details of goods sent, </li></ul><ul><li>Expenses incurred by consignee </li></ul><ul><li>Profit </li></ul><ul><li>CREDIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>Sales by consignee </li></ul><ul><li>Stock (closing stock) </li></ul>
  20. 20. What are the contents of consignee account ? <ul><li>DEBIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>Details of goods sold by consignee (consignment a/c ) </li></ul><ul><li>CREDIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>All the expenses </li></ul><ul><li>(consignment account) </li></ul><ul><li>Bank / cash payments received from consignee </li></ul>
  21. 21. What accounting entry will be made when consignee receives goods from consignor ? No accounting entry is required the consignee is not the owner of the goods, hence, no accounting entry is required. However, there is a book maintained by consignee, which shows the arrival of the goods. This is called consignment inward book.
  22. 22. What accounting entry is required when consignee sells the goods (in the books of consignee) ? Bank a/c Debit or Cash a/c debit to consignor a/c credit
  23. 23. What accounting entry is required when consignee spends money on behalf of consignor (in the books of consignee) ? Consignor a/c debit to bank / to cash ac credit
  24. 24. What accounting entry is required for closing stock (in the books of consignor) ? Stock in consignment a/c debit to consignment a/c credit
  25. 25. What accounting entry is required for closing stock (in the books of consignee) ? No entry is required (as these goods are the property of consignor )
  26. 26. Solve this question Eekshwanku sent to Eklavya 1,000 pieces of goods on consignment basis; one piece costing Rs. 230. Eekshwanku sent Rs. 200 on packing, Rs. 400 on freight and Rs. 1,000 on insurance in transit. Eklavya paid octroi duty amounting to Rs. 1,200 and cartage Rs. 1,300 to bring goods to his godowns. In course of time Eklavya also spent Rs. 1,500 on insurance and rent of godown and paid Rs. 4,000 as salaries to salesman. Just before close of accounting period, Eklavya reported that he had sold 800 pieces at Rs. 300 per piece. Eklavya is entitled to a commission @ 5% of gross sales.
  27. 27. Consignment account <ul><li>DEBIT </li></ul><ul><li>To goods sent on consignment 230000 </li></ul><ul><li>To bank 1600 </li></ul><ul><li>To consignee(expenses) </li></ul><ul><li>8000 </li></ul><ul><li>To consignee (commission) </li></ul><ul><li>1200 </li></ul><ul><li>Profit : 46020 </li></ul><ul><li>Total : 286,820 </li></ul><ul><li>CREDIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>By consignee 240000 </li></ul><ul><li>By closing stock </li></ul><ul><li>(see next slide for valuation) </li></ul><ul><li>= 46820 </li></ul><ul><li>Total: 286,820 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Consignee account <ul><li>DEBIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>To consignment a/c (sale) 240000 </li></ul><ul><li>CREDIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>By consignment a/c (expenses) 8000 </li></ul><ul><li>By consignment a/c </li></ul><ul><li>(commission) 1200 </li></ul><ul><li>By balace / bank (if he pays) (balancing figure) 230800 </li></ul>
  29. 29. Calculation of closing stock While calculating closing stock, we add all the non-recurring expenses in the value of closing stock cost of stock 200*230 =46000 (200+400+1000+1200+1300) 4100 * 200/1000 =820 total cost =46820
  30. 30. How to handle loss ? <ul><li>There are two types of loss : 1 normal 2 abnormal loss </li></ul><ul><li>we have separate accounting for these </li></ul>
  31. 31. How to adjust normal loss in consignment ? While calculating the value of stock on consignment, the cost is inflated to cover the normal loss.
  32. 32. 1,000 tonnes of limestone is consigned @20 per tonne, freight thereon being Rs. 4,000. the quantity sold is 600 tonnes and that unsold is 350 tonnes,there is a normal of loss 50 tonnes. Here cost of closing stock will be inflated as under : (cost) * unsold goods / total goods for sale =(20000+ 4000) * 350 / 950 = 8843 answer
  33. 33. How to handle abnormal loss ? There are two possibilities : 1. loss is insured 2. loss is not insured if loss is insured, the insurance company will pay the money. So create an abnormal loss account and close it from the money received from insurance company. If there is no insurance, the entire loss must be transferred to Profit and loss account
  34. 34. What is joint venture ? When two or more firms / individual join together to work on a project, it is called joint venture. It is not partnership, as it is just a project on which they are working together.
  35. 35. What is the difference between joint venture and partnership ? Partnership has a new firm, with new name, new set up Partnership is lasting,. Partnership enables firm to have a consolidated financial system Joint venture is temporary association and it doesnt have a new firm
  36. 36. What are the systems of accounting in joint venture ? There are 2 possibilities : 1. when separate books are maintained 2 when separate books are not maintained
  37. 37. when separate books are maintained Each party in the joint venture must have following accounts : 1. Joint Venture account 2. Joint venture party account (personal account of the other party)
  38. 38. Memorandum method Here each party maintains following accounts : 1. Memorandum joint venture account 2. joint venture party account (personal account of the other party)
  39. 39. Example On 1st January 2007 B and C entered into a joint venture sharing the profits in the ratio of 3:2 after allowing a salary of Rs. 2000 p.m. to C. B sent out of his stock of goods costing Rs.5,00,000 to be sold by the latter and incurred expenses amount to Rs. 10,700. On 3rd January, 2007, C accepted a bill of exchange at 2 months for Rs. 3, 00,000 drawn by B. By 31st March, 2007 C had sold goods for Rs. 6, 00,500 after incurring expenses amounting to Rs. 11,450. C agreed to take over the remaining goods for Rs. 20,000. C forwarded a cheque immediately to settle the account. Show the Journal and Ledger Account in the books of B and C.
  40. 40. Joint venture accoung in the books of B <ul><li>DEBIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>To goods sent / Trading / purchase 5 lakh </li></ul><ul><li>To bank 10700 </li></ul><ul><li>To C 11450 </li></ul><ul><li>To C (salary) 6000 </li></ul><ul><li>To profit 92350 </li></ul><ul><li>(B= 55410) </li></ul><ul><li>CREDIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>By C (sale ) 600500 </li></ul><ul><li>By C 20000 </li></ul><ul><li>Total : 620500 </li></ul>
  41. 41. Joint venture party a/c C's personal account (in the books of B ) <ul><li>DEBIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>Joint venture (Sale) 600500 </li></ul><ul><li>Joint venture (stock taken over) 20000 </li></ul><ul><li>Total : 620500 </li></ul><ul><li>CREDIT SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>By bill receivable 3 lakh </li></ul><ul><li>By joint venture (expenses+salary) 17450 </li></ul><ul><li>By profit (share) 36940 </li></ul><ul><li>Total : 354390 </li></ul><ul><li>Bank : 266110 (balancing figure to be paid by C to B ) </li></ul>
  42. 42. When separate books of accounts are maintained for joint venture ? Here there are separate books of joint venture account. These books are maintained in the joint venture itself. Thus each party need not maintain complete accounts. Here we have following accounts : 1. joint venture account 2. joint bank account 3. personal account of the joint venture party
  43. 43. Details of the accounts : Joint Venture Account : just like Trading and Profit and Loss Account for the venture showing purchase of goods, expenses, sale of goods etc. Balance of this account will show profit or loss of business and is distributed between co-venturers. Joint Bank Account : separate bank account opened in the joint names showing receipts and payment of cash. Personal Accounts of Co-venturers : It is the capital accounts of the co-venturers showing, investment, entitlements, receipts and drawing by the co-venturers.
  44. 44. Example : A and B entered into a joint venture to construct a building of a new company. Profit and loss were to be shared in the ratio of 3:2. A invested Rs. 2,00,000 and B Rs. 1,00,000. The money was deposited to a joint bank account with arrangement of overdraft of Rs. 2,00,000. A also supplied materials valued Rs. 35,000 and B paid the architects fees of Rs. 15,000. B also supplied a machine valued Rs. 25,000. Building materials valued Rs. 4,00,000 and wages Rs. 1,00,000. They collected Rs 100000 from the joint venture.
  45. 45. Joint venture account <ul><li>DEBIT </li></ul><ul><li>To A 35000 </li></ul><ul><li>To B 15000 </li></ul><ul><li>To B 25000 </li></ul><ul><li>To bank material 400000 </li></ul><ul><li>To bank wages 100000 </li></ul><ul><li>To profit 425000 </li></ul><ul><li>CREDIT </li></ul><ul><li>By sales 1000000 </li></ul>
  46. 46. Joint bank account <ul><li>Debit </li></ul><ul><li>To A 200000 </li></ul><ul><li>To B 100000 </li></ul><ul><li>To sales 1000000 </li></ul><ul><li>Credit </li></ul><ul><li>By joint venture 400000 </li></ul><ul><li>By joint venture 100000 </li></ul><ul><li>By a 490000 </li></ul><ul><li>By B 310000 </li></ul>
  47. 47. JOINT VENTURERS A/C A <ul><li>DEBIT </li></ul><ul><li>To bank : 490000 </li></ul><ul><li>CREDIT </li></ul><ul><li>By bank 200000 </li></ul><ul><li>By joint venture 35000 </li></ul><ul><li>By profit 255000 </li></ul>
  48. 48. JOINT VENTURERS A/C B <ul><li>To bank : 310000 </li></ul><ul><li>Credit </li></ul><ul><li>By bank 100000 </li></ul><ul><li>By joint venture 15000 </li></ul><ul><li>By joint venture 25000 </li></ul><ul><li>By profit 170000 </li></ul>
  49. 49. THANKS.... GIVE YOUR SUGGESTIONS AND JOIN AFTERSCHOOOL NETWORK / START AFTERSCHOOOL SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP NETWORK IN YOUR CITY / COLLEGE [email_address] PGPSE – WORLD'S MOST COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAMME IN SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

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