Basic terms of business and commerce Presentation Transcript
BASIC TERMS OF BUSINESS AND COMMERCE by : DR. T.K. JAIN AFTERSCHO ☺ OL centre for social entrepreneurship sivakamu veterinary hospital road bikaner 334001 rajasthan, india FOR – CSE & PGPSE STUDENTS (CSE & PGPSE are free online programmes open for all, free for all) mobile : 91+9414430763
My words..... My purpose here is to give basic terms used in business and commerce. Let us spread knowledge as widely as possible. I welcome your suggestions. I also request you to help me in spreading social entrepreneurship across the globe – for which I need support of you people – not of any VIP. With your help, I can spread the ideas – for which we stand....
What is ULIP? Unit Linked Investment Plan= here the investments are attached to share markets. They may rise and fall with share market. Generally ULIPs have option of different combination of equity and debt. A 60:40 scheme means 60% investment goes in equity and 40% in debt (less risky). Higher the equity, higher the risks and rewards (both). It is similar to mutual funds.
What is a mutual fund or collective investment scheme? Mutual fund is a combined investment by small investors – where there is an independent trust which manages these investments – in stock market / debt instruments and distributes profit / returns to the investors collective investment schemes are similar to mutual fund, but not the same.
What is the difference between equity and debt? Equity = ownership in a company – so it carries dividend – share in profit - if there is no profit – no dividend – more profit = more dividend debt = fixed interest bearing time bound instruments like debenture, bond, etc. (it is similar to FD – fixed deposits )
What is ZERO COUPON BOND? Coupon = interest rate These bonds are issued at a price much lower than face value (print price) they dont carry any interest. But the benefit is in terms of price difference. Suppose you buy them in 60 and they are matured at 100 you get 40 on investment of 60. they are for fixed period they are also called deep discount bond
What is RRB? Regional Rural banks – they are for development of a particular area – rural area there are many RRBs in India However, most of these are in financial difficulties
What is lead bank scheme? This is the coordinating bank for a particular area. It tries to promote banking in a particular area and coordinates with other banks. w
What is clearing? If you have an account in SBI, but your friend gives you a cheque drawn on ICICI, you deposit the cheque in your bank. Your bank will not give you credit immediately. It will send the cheque for clearing. The cheque will go to ICICI which will give credit to SBI, which will then give you the credit. Local clearing takes 1 day, outstation clearing may take 10 days – and there are some charges also for this.
What is at par cheque book? Now many banks give at par cheque book. These cheques are such that there is no clearing charge on these chques even if you deposit them in any bank.
How does ATM work? You have a card – which is called debit card (ATM card). You can go to any bank. You insert the card in the ATM machine. The machine will authenticate it. There is a centralised hub in Mumbai – which has data connectivity to all the banks. There will be authentication from this data base – thus your balance will be ascertained and you will be allowed to withdraw money from this balance.
What is the difference between debit card and credit card? Debit card is ATM card you can withdraw cash from this. A few organisations take ATM card also for transactions. CREDIT card gives you the facility to buy goods from market using this card. The bank gets commission from the listing / marketing company and you get free credit facility (for 1 month) and you can pay to bank in 1 month.
What is difference between draft and banker's cheque? For local transactions, banks give banker's cheque for outstation, the banks give demand draft (which is as good as money) it is also similar to postal order banks earn commission when they issue draft / banker's cheque
What is money transfer ? There are many types of money transfer like : TT (telegraphic transfer) / RTGS (real time gross settlement transfer) here you can transfer money from one account to another instantly (you have to pay some charges if the amount is more than Rs. 25000) the charges are very less and generally banks have some minimum amount requirements
What is PAYPAL? These are used in e-commerce here you can make payment for international transactions. There is a secure system of authentication and the company which has to receive money – gets its account with paypal
What is public key and private key ? These are base of ecommerce. Every transaction can be executed only with combination of these two keys. Public key can be known, but private key is known only to the user.
What is dayend? In any organisation, the software generates a key at the time of day end. Which has to be kept safe and it has to tally with the opening key of the next day. Thus it is ensured that there is no unauthorised transaction in between and data are safe. Every organisation keeps a register of the keys generated at the time of day end and day start.
What is whistle blowing ? If you are working in a company and finds that some unethical (wrong) thing is taking place, you can raise this issue with the top executives – this is called whistle blowing companies have some executives to look after these issues.
What is ALM? Asset Liability Management banks have to ensure that their assets and liabilities are balanced – for this they do ALM.
What is a cartel? When a group of firms join together and fix prices together, it is called cartel. They are in collusion (an agreement).
What is ombudsman? It is the executive, who tries to handle public grievances (complaint). Now ombudsman is appointed in every department In banks also we have banking ombudsman it is there to stop corruption
What is IBA? Indian Banks association it promotes knowledge about banking and promotes research in this sector. It conducts some sources for banking professionals
What is IDRBT? Institute of development and research in banking technology it is located in Hyderabad it introduces latest technology in banking it also conducts training programmes in banking technology
What is SLR? Statutory liquidity ratio : banks have to keep some part of their deposits in government securities / specified investments, this is called SLR
WHAT IS CRR? Cash Reserve Ratio : banks have to keep some % of their deposits in cash with RBI, this is called CRR. Current rate : 5.75 % when liquidity is more in the system, CRR is increase. Reently RBI increase it by .75 so as to reduce liquidity in the system and to reduce inflation.
WHAT IS BANK RATE? The rate at which RBI lends to other banks or discounts the bills of other banks is called bank rate. It is 6% now
What is PLR ? The rate at which banks give loans to their best customers, is called PLR. P=prime (best customers) L = lending R = rate suppose a bank is giving loan to a govt. Department - it will give at PLR. To an ordinary customer, the bank will give at PLR + SOME POINTS.
Who decides PLR ? Each bank decides at its own – what is its PLR. PLR depends on the costing of the bank.
What is LIBOR? LONDON INTERBANK OFFERED RATE it is the most popular international base rate. Most international transactions take place on this rate. There are many other rates also like this like : MIBOR = mumbai inter bank offered rate.
What is REPO rate? Repo= REPURCHASE rate. Discount rate at which a central bank repurchases government securities from the commercial banks, depending on the level of money supply it decides to maintain in the country's monetary system. To temporarily expand the money supply, the central bank decreases repo rates (so that banks can swap their holdings of government securities for cash), to contract the money supply it increases the repo rates. Alternatively, the central bank decides on a desired level of money supply and lets the market determine the appropriate repo rate.
What is inflation and what are its types ? When prices are rising it is called inflation. It may be due to two reasons : 1. demand is more than supply (called demand pull inflation) 2. cost is increasing (cost push inflation) due to inflation, the purchasing price of money falls. Small level of inflation is healthy for growth of industries, but hyper inflation is dangerous.
What is deficit financing ? When government uses deficits (expenses are more than revenue) in its budget, it is called deficit financing. Every govt. Goes for deficit financing. Revenue deficit is acceptable, but fiscal deficit should not be excessive. Then it would result in inflation, and anomalies in economic system. Deficit should be small so that it is less than half of the growth in the GDP so that it can be absorbed in the economy.
What is fiscal policy ? Fiscal = relating to government revenues policy = overall guidelines for action Overall policy of the government regarding taxation, revenue and expenditure is called fiscal policy
What is the difference between fiscal deficit and revenue deficit? Fiscal deficit is broader in comparison to revenue deficit. Revenue deficit takes into account only revenues and expenditure (it doesnt include capital expenditure and long term borrowings). But fiscal deficit includes capital revenues and captial expenditure also.
What is the difference between plan and non plan expenditure ? Plan expenditure = for new projects, developmental work nonplan expenditure = every year the government has to spend some money on maintenance, staff salary, interest payments etc. All these are called non-plan expenditure
What is the difference betwen revenue and capital expenditure ? Revenue expenditure is for revenue head (which is having impact on one year). Capital expenditure is related to long term impact creating things – like building / assets etc. (capital = long term investment)
What are the sources of revenue for the governments? 1. indirect tax (the biggest source of income for any government – it includes excise, customs, etc.) (the burden of this tax is borne by common people as consumers) 2. direct tax – it includes that tax whic is borne by the tax payer (example : income tax, wealth tax, etc. ) 3. income from PSUs (now the govt. Is disinvesting its profit making units, so this source of income will reduce in future). 4. disinvestment = sale of PSU – now this is becoming a major source of income for the govt – who will tell that it is not good to kill the goose that gives golden eggs.
What is PSU? PSU = public sector unit – there are many examples : Navratnas & Maharatnas : for example : IOC, ONGC, GAIL, SAIL, NTPC, MTNL etc.
Which are the PSUs that have been privatised recently ? THERE ARE MANY : VSNL – SOLD TO TATA CMC - SOLD TO TATA IPCL – SOLD TO RELIANCE MODERN BREAD – SOLD TO HUL – WHICH ALSO SOLD IT OUT
What is QIP? Qualified institutional placement : here a company can issue equity shares, fully and partly convertible debentures, or any securities other than warrants which are convertible to equity shares to
Who are qualified institutional buyers ? They have expertise and the financial analytical skills to evaluate and invest in the capital markets Public financial instituions Pension funds Provident funds mutual funds venture capital funds FIIs other such bodies as approved by SEBI (DIP) guidelines
What is ADR? ownership in the shares of a non-U.S. company that trades in U.S. financial markets. An owner of an ADR has the right to obtain the foreign stock it represents, but US investors usually find it more convenient simply to own the ADR. The price of an ADR often tracks the price of the foreign stock in its home market,
What is GDR? If you want your shares to be traded in London stock exchange and Luxumberg stock exchange, you can issue GDR. GDR represent shares of non-european company. GDRs are traded on the International Order Book (IOB). Normally 1 GDR = 10 Shares, but not always.
What is green shoe option? It allow underwriters to sell up to 15% more shares than the original number set by the issuer, if demand is more..
What is red herring prospectus? Now most companies fix share prices through bidding process (when the go for IPO). Prospectus require that they have to disclose price in advance. So companies go for red herring prospectus. There is no price or issue size stated in the red herring, and it is sometimes updated several times before being called the final prospectus. It also contains a passage in red that states the company is not attempting to sell its shares before the registration is approved by the SEBI.
What is gum jumping ? If companies invite investors to subscribe their share even before their prospectus is approved by SEBI it is called gum jumping. It is illegal. Trading securities on the basis of information that has not yet been disclosed to the public is illegal. It is done before IPO, insider trading is generally for shares which are already issued.
What is IPO Locking? It is a period of time after a company has initially gone public, usually between 90 to 180 days. During these initial days of trading, company insiders or those holding majority stakes in the company are forbidden to sell any of their shares. Once the lock-up period ends, most trading restrictions are removed.
What is underwriting? Underwriting means an agreement with or without conditions to subscribe to the securities of a body corporate when public (for IPO) OR the existing shareholders (for rights issue) of such body corporate or the public (for rights issue or FPO) do not subscribe to the securities offered to them.
What is FPO? FPO = follow on public issue IPO = initial public offering FPO is for a company which had earlier also issues shares, so now it again wants to issue shares.
What is the meaning of SUBSCRIPTION LIST IS OPEN? When a company invites public to subscribe to its shares, it is called subscription list is open. Subscription list must be kept open for Min. 3 working days and max. 10 working days and operation of subscription list be disclosed in the prospectus. For infrastructure company/ designated financial institution maximum period is 21 working days. Rights issue should be kept open for at least 30 days and maximum 60 days.
What is the minimum price to be paid on application? The minimum application value should be within the range of Rs. 5,000 to Rs. 7,000. The issuer company, in consultation with the merchant banker, stipulates the minimum application size (in terms of number of shares) falling within the aforesaid range of minimum application value
What is private placement ? The sale of securities to a relatively small number of select investors as a way of raising capital. Investors involved in private placements are usually large banks, mutual funds, insurance companies and pension funds. Private placement is the opposite of a public issue
What is book building ? In this, an underwriter attempts to determine at what price to offer an IPO based on demand from institutional investors. Example : if in book building the prices are coming at 500, the share will be priced 500 (premium is 490 on face value of 10)
What do you understand from book runner? The managing or lead underwriter who maintains the books of securities sold for a new issue.
What is FCCB? Foreign currency convertible bond : It is a convertible bond issued in a currency different than the issuer's domestic currency. It is issued to raise foreign currency. A convertible bond is a mix between a debt and equity instrument. It acts like a bond by making regular coupon and principal payments, but these bonds also give the bondholder the option to convert the bond into shares.
What is Yankee bond? It is a bond denominated in U.S. dollars that is publicly issued in the U.S. by foreign banks and corporations. According to the Securities Act of 1933, these bonds must first be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) before they can be sold. Minimum issue size = $ 1 billion
What is eurobond? A bond issued in a currency other than the currency of the country is eurobond.it is issued by an international syndicate and categorized according to the currency in which it is denominated. A eurodollar bond that is denominated in U.S. dollars and issued in Japan by an Australian company would be an example of a eurobond.
What is bulldog bond? A sterling denominated bond that is issued in London by a company that is not British.
What is a Dragon Bond? A bond that is issued in Asia but denominated in U.S. dollars.
What Does Samurai Bond Mean? A yen-denominated bond issued in Tokyo by a non-Japanese company and subject to Japanese regulations. Other types of yen-denominated bonds are Euroyens issued in countries other than Japan.
What is shogun bond? A type of foreign-currency denominated bond that is issued in Japan by foreign entities. Organizations such as the World Bank have issued such debt instruments in the past .
What Does Kangaroo Bond Mean? A type of foreign bond that is issued in the Australian market by non-Australian firms and is denominated in Australian currency. The bond is subject to Australian laws and regulations.
What Does Euroyen Mean? Japanese yen-denominated deposits held in banks outside Japan
What Does Sushi Bond Mean? A Eurobond that is issued by a Japanese issuer and does not count against a Japanese institution's limits on the holdings of foreign securities.
What is currency risk? A form of risk that arises from the change in price of one currency against another.
What Does Tequila Effect Mean? Informal name given to the impact of the 1994 Mexican economic crisis on the South American economy. The Tequila Effect occurred because of a sudden devaluation in the Mexican peso,
What Does Hedge Mean? Making an investment to reduce the risk of adverse price movements in an asset. Normally, a hedge consists of taking an offsetting position in a related security, such as a futures contract. Example 1. You have a share of $ 100 you want to sell it after 5 months. If you sell it in future market / option market now – you can ensure that there will not be any risk to you due to fall in dollar. Example 2 : suppose you have to pay $ 1000 after 6 months, if you buy a future contract now, you save yourself from fluctuations in dollars.
What Does CNY Mean? In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the China Yuan Renminbi.- it is a Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion.
What Does Delta Hedging Mean? An options strategy that aims to reduce (hedge) the risk associated with price movements in the underlying asset by offsetting long and short positions.
WHAT IS EQUITY ? It refers to shares. What is a share : a share in ownership of a company If you have share of a company, you are one of the owners of the company The person who has 50% or more shares of a company, becomes the true and real owner of the company – and decide about its management also. If no one has 51% shares, the person who has largest shares, becomes the decision maker regarding the company.
How is a company managed? A company is managed by a board of directors. The board of directors then appoint other executives for day to day management. Board of directors are appointed by Shareholders through their annual general meeting. First board of directors is appointed by the promotors – thereafter, the shareholders select them.
Are companies truly democratic? Yes – but here votes are not counted on the basis of number of persons, but on the basis of capital (shares) held by a person. So if you have more shares, you have more votes, if you have less shares, you have less votes.
Why is company called a symbol of capitalism? Here a person who has money, controls everything. The person who has money is able to generate more money and this promotes accumulation (concentration) of wealth. This is just opposite of socialism or marxism - where all the means of production are controlled by the government.
What is capital, is it really a liability? Yes, Capital is the money invested in a business. Since business is different from the owners, so the capital is also a liability for the business.
What is the difference between a liability and an asset? Asset is used to generate more asset and to generate revenue. Asset is what you actually own. Asset belong to you. You can take money out of this asset. You can liquidate it (convert it into money). Liability is what you have to pay. It belong to someone else – they may demand it from you anytime.
What is the biggest asset of bank? Theoretically – their main assets are the loans that they have given – so in their balance sheet – 90% of their assets are in the form of loans given by them. But practially , their biggest assets are their committed people, who are not shown in any balance sheet.
What is the difference between equity and debenture? Equity = ownership – so you get dividend (not interest) but this dividend will be available only if there is profit. If there is no profit – no dividend. You can never demand your money back from the company (as you are the owner) debenture – it is just like an FD – here you get fixed interest per annum you are paid back your money after some time (let us say 7 years).
What is the difference between debenture and bond? Practically – yes (both carry interest, in both the cases, the money is returned back after some years and both are liability for the company). there is little difference. Debentures are generally secured Bonds are generally unsecured Operationally – there is difference between these two instruments.
If I purchase shares of a company, but want my money back, what should I do ? Go to the secondary market (stock exchanges) and sell out the share in open market – through some broker. You will get your money back. The person who buys the share will now become the owner of the comapny (being share holder).
What is liquidity ? Liquidity = cash because you can use cash for any purpose. No business can work without liquidity to some extent, debtors, inventory, bonds, short term instruments are also liquid – as you can convert them into cash any time. Land, building, plant etc. Are less liquid – as you will rarely convert them into cash.
What is the difference between equity and preference shares? Prefernce shares are just like debentures. They carry fixed interest (although it is called dividend). They are for a fixed period (let us say for 7 years). Preference shareholders get preference in comparison to equity shareholders at the time of payment of dividend or the money.
How can I invest in equity / preference / debentures? You can invest in primary market or in secondary market. In order to invest through secondary market – just go to a share broker – he will tell you all the procedure and you can invest. If you want to invest in primary market (fresh issue) – look for advertisements of the company and apply against the advertisement – again through proper system.
What is IPO? It is primary market IPO = initial public offer when a company issues shares for the first time – it is called IPO. When the comapny again issues shares – it is called rights issue.
What is the biggest IPO in India so far? Reliance Power ($3 billion on 15 January 2008)
Who supervises primary & secondary market ? SEBI (ESTD IN 1992)
What was the institution before SEBI? CICA controller of capital issues But SEBI has much wider role
Which is India's biggest stock exchange ? NSE (BSE is the oldest stock exchange – from 1875)
What is SENSEX? Group of 30 shares based market index - which represents the rise and fall of shares. All the shares are listed on BSE. (NSE has NIFTY – which has 50 shares listed on NSE)
How many stock exchanges are there in India ? 23 only two are corporatised (as a company) so far : 1. NSE 2. OTCEI
How are share prices determined ? Purely on the basis of market forces. Demand and supply determine price. If demand will go up – prices will increase, if demand is less than supply – prices will fall. It is like perfect market. Demand and supply depends on information. Market discounts every information. Market has all the information uptodate. If there is a good news about a company, the market will discount it – as more people will buy that share and less people will sell it – so the prices will go up.
How do people decide about shares – whether to buy or not? People look at future earnings potential of a company before buying a share. If they believe that the company will be able to earn and grow manifold – they will buy at premium (more price than the print price). If they belive that the company will be a sick company (in huge losses) – they will sell it at a discount (below the print price). If FM (finance minister) gives a good budget – people expect a good future of company and the prices will shoot up.
How do we ensure that our money is safe in a company ? There are auditors, independent directors, and independent audit comitees in every company to ensure that there are no frauds and our money remains safe there. Still there are possibilities for fraud. Investors have to be very careful. They should not invest just at the advice of someone. They must themselves study the fundamentals of a company before investing and invest in A class shares only.
What are A class shares? In BSE, they have classified shares on some basis – like market capitalisation, daily business, regularity of information submission etc. There are different types of companies like : A, B, T, Z, etc. So you must invest in A class shares only.
What is market capitalisation? Total market value of all the shares issued is called market capitalisation. If a company has issued 1000 shares and market price of each share is 189, the market capitalisation of this company is : 189 * 1000 = 189000 answer
What is the difference between face value and market value ? Face value may be : 1, or 2, or 5, or 10 or 100 or 1000. etc. It remains fixed – until company changes it. but market price keeps changing every day – every minute market price of good companies is always higher than its face price. Face price is print price (it is not listed or issue price).
Do companies issue on face price ? Generally no companies generally issue at premium for example reliance power : face price =10 issue price = 450
Which company has the largest number of shareholders in India Reliance Industries Ltd. General retail investors more than 35 lakhs
What is the difference between debtors and creditors ? Debtor is a firm from whom a business has to collect money. (it is an asset) Creditor is one who will collect money from the company (it is a liability)
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