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Number of Energy Levels: 3
First Energy Level: 2
Second Energy Level: 8
Third Energy Level: 4
What is silicon used for?
It is used in the
production of various
product,s as in the in
ﬁgures 1 ,2 and 3.
Figure 2 Figure 3
History Of Silicon
In 1800, Davy thought silica to be a compound and not an
element; but in 1811, Gay Lussac and Thenard probably
prepared impure amorphous silicon by heating potassium with
In 1824 Berzelius, genera%y credited with the discovery,
prepared amorphous silicon by the same general method and
puriﬁed the product by removing the ﬂuosilicates by repeated
How is Silicon Puriﬁed?
Today, silicon is puriﬁed by converting
it to a silicon compound that can be
more easily puriﬁed by disti%ation
than in its original state, and then
converting that silicon compound back
into pure silicon. Trichlorosilane is
the silicon compound most commonly
used as the intermediate, although
silicon tetrachloride and silane are
Where is Silicon found?
Pure silicon cannot be found in nature,
though it makes up approximately
25.3-28.0% of the earth's crust, making
it second in abundance (oxygen is ﬁrst).
Silicon is obtained by heating silica, or
silicon dioxide with carbon or
magnesium (or some reducing agent) in
an electric furnace.