COMMUNICATINGMY VIEW ON THE„TAKE TIME OUT‟CONFERENCEMARCH 2013“ENHANCING CLASSROOMLEARNING”
THE CONCEPT A THREE DAY CONFERENCE FORPROFESSIONAL EDUCATORS TOSTIMULATE AND SUPPORT GENERALPROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGHENQUIRY AND REFLECTIVE PRACTICE,CRITICAL READING, PROFESSIONALCONVERSATIONS AND WRITING, ANDESPECIALLY THE CONTRIBUTIONS THESEMAKE TO LEADERSHIP, CONFIDENCE ANDCAPABILITY FOR PERSONAL ANDINSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
PLENARY KEYNOTE SPEAKERSAND FACILITATORS DR. RAPHAEL WILKINS: Assistant Director(InternationalConsultancy and Knowledge Transfer) and Director ofInternational Affairs in the London Centre forLeadership in Learning, Institute of Education,University of London, and also the President of theCollege of Teachers. Enhancing learning through relevance to students. Enhancing classroom learning through enhancingteachers‟ learning.
PLENARY KEYNOTE SPEAKERSAND FACILITATORS DR. ELEANORE HARGREAVES: Author Of “What Makes AGood Primary School Teacher: expert ClassroomStrategies”(2002) And recently published article“Teachers‟ Classroom Feedback: still trying to get itright”(2012) Learning: principles and practices(keynote) Purposes of Learning(workshop) Feedback: Principles and practices for enhancinglearning(keynote) Learning and Human Relationships: Collaboration andHuman purposes(workshop)
SPONSORED PRESENTATION MR. NEIL RICHARDS: Principal,British International School ofPhuket, Thailand on behalf of CIE. The role of leadership in enhancingteaching and learning
EXECUTIVE CHALLENGES CHALLENGE 1: What practical steps could your school taketo encourage teachers to talk about learning[rather than„performance‟, „work‟, or „teaching‟? What might thedifficulties be and how would you overcome these? CHALLENGE 2: What practical steps could your school taketo encourage teachers to provide feedback to pupils, bothverbal and written, which really helps students to learn ina valuable way? Why might this be necessary? Challenge 3: To what extent are the students in yourschools enabled to use collaboration in order to learn?Which kinds of collaboration do they use? What might stopthis happening and how could you make it happen moreoften?
The key concepts thispresentation will focus on are; Learning: principles and practices(executive challenge 1) Feedback: principles and practices forenhancing learning (executive challenge 2) Learning: through collaboration(executivechallenge 3) Leadership (5 min audio)
ILLERIS‟ (2007)DEFINITION OF LEARNING„ANY PROCESS …THATLEADS TO PERMANENTCAPACITY CHANGE‟
Learning can be seen as:„a change in state, whichalters how we act on theworld and in turn change itby our actions….[Learn: To be, To do, To know]
TALK ABOUT LEARNINGOne proven way toencourage people tolearn, is to talkabout learning
HOW DOES LEARNINGHAPPEN All learning contains 2 very different processes[in varying proportions]:1. Interactions between the individual and theenvironment [inter-personal and societal]2. Acquisition deriving from new interactions andrelevant earlier learning determined by Content (something must be learned) and Incentive(something must set acquisition inmotion)[desire, novelty, challenge, interest, necessityor force]
Students‟ perspective I learn when I get ideas from other people I learn well when I am in control of my actions I learn when motivated I learn when I choose the time and the way to do it I learn when the teacher builds on concepts alreadyknown to us I learn when I interact with other people I learned when I kept doing small things again and again
Comments from KGS students Learning is when youve studied something so well that it isntsomething you have to try really hard to recall, but instead italmost comes naturally whenever you need it or see somethingrelated to it. If that knowledge is more like a reflex than amemory, then youve learnt it, not just studied it. I learn best when Im sitting up with some sort of background noisee.g. TV or music. And when its a subject I enjoy Learning is when you understand and are able to explain in yourown terms. I learn best in a comfortable cool place (school shouldget A.Cs) Learning is something I don‟t know and can pick up from otherpeople or from books or from my friends, from cricketers,footballers etc.(MS) learning is when it makes a difference for better in your life. Youlearn best when you open your heart and brace concepts with openmind, I learn best when there is no expectation.
Comments from KGS students I think I learn best when I am surrounded by peoplewho think in different ways and have differentapproaches towards life. At the same time, in the moreconventional way, students learn a great deal in theclassroom by interactive teaching methods such aspresentations, videos, movies etc. I do strongly feelthat along with covering the syllabus, teachers mustunderstand that students learn best when they aregiven short breaks during a lesson to rejuvenatethemselves and be more attentive for the rest of thelesson. Learning for me is retaining information which I canapply practically in the future without needing revision.I learn best when on a deadline.
LEARNING CAN BE CONFUSEDWITH: Teaching: “The long standing cultureof classroom is: teaching is telling,learning is listening, knowledge issubject matter taught by teachersand found in books.” This does notaccord with evidence from research
LEARNING CAN BE CONFUSEDWITH: Performance: working towardsexam performance substitutes„learning‟ Work/activity: students completinga „learning‟ task or activity, doesnot mean learning has occurred Memorization: practice rather thananalytical analysis.
As learners we all vary onthis, depending on contextLearning orientation(GM) We believe that effort canlead to success We believe in our ability toimprove and learn, and notbe fixed or stuck We prefer challengingtasks, whose outcomereflects our approach We get satisfaction frompersonally-defined successat difficult tasks We talk to ourselves: whenengaged in a task we talkourselves throughPerformance orientation(FM) We believe that ability leadsto success We are concerned to be seenas able, and to perform wellin others‟ eyes We seek satisfaction fromdoing better than others We emphasise competition,public evaluation When the task is difficult wedisplay helplessness:“I can‟t do X”
AS A LEARNER ARE YOUPERFORMANCE ORIENTED?LEARNING ORIENTED?
WHAT ABOUT YOURSTUDENTS?ARE THEY• PERFORMANCE ORIENTED?• LEARNING ORIENTED?
Changing from “work” to“learning” is one element inchanging the language andclimate of the classroom.We arehere tolearn!
In current times we can see:Schools that aredriving Values are visible Focus onreflection andlearning Leadership isdistributed Values of trust,respectSchools that aredriven Values are unclear Passing onperformancepressure Leadership is“top-down” “Toxicrelationships”
FEEDBACK: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES FORENHANCING LEARNING[AND LEARNING ABOUT LEARNING]
WHAT DO WE MEAN BY‘FEEDBACK’ TODAY?Teachers‟comments on thelearning orperformance oflearners
Feedback can be1. Evaluative (assess, gauge, estimateperformance. e.g. 8/10)2. Descriptive (what to do, what ismissing. e.g Use ruler to draw lightrays) or3. Provocative (provoke thinking aboutlearning and pupils self direction. e.g.What is the criteria for significantfigures in the answer?)
With a focus on1. Self,2. Task,3. Task processes or4. Self regulation? e.g. Disappointing! You can do better thanthis. Please rewrite.
Feedback promotes a learningorientation when the focus islearning, not self Feedback becomes effective whenpupil response is not „I‟m so great!‟ or „I‟m so bad‟, but „Now I know how to improve andlearn more- today and in thefuture‟.
Praise could also encourageengagement if it was learning-oriented: Learning oriented praise:Well done! This is great because youhave shown me the evidence for yourtheory being correct [in science] Performance oriented praise:This is excellent again. Your sciencework is very good.
Feedback examples the answer is incorrect as the value from the graph for„f‟ is 8 not 6. Label the graph Your writing needs to be legible Reinforce your basic concepts Use correct terms Good presentation, but could have been more accurate Use sharp pencil for the diagram
Feedback examples I think you understand quickly what is explained inclass, but you really must consolidate this with regularH.W. Faulty understanding Avoid redundancy Excellent! Can be used as a model answer Incomplete and incorrect diagrams Use diagrams to substantiate your answer A more thorough analysis of the sources provided wouldhave enhanced the quality of your answer
Feedback examples Inappropriate tone and language used One sided argument was given when the questionspecifically used the word “Discuss” Ideas should have a logical progression To take adequate benefit of error carried forward makesure no steps are skipped in your working
Turning descriptive feedbackto Provocative feedback Define “Principle of moments” “For an object to be in equilibrium, the sum ofclockwise moments about a point/pivot is equal to thesum of anticlockwise moments about the samepoint/pivot” Descriptive feedback “complete statement includes- Foran object to be in equilibrium” Provocative feedback “ would this statement be true foran object in equilibrium or not in equilibrium?”
Learning oriented feedbackshould encourage pupils to:1. Take more initiatives,2. Act more independently and3. Approach their learning morecriticallyThese aspects are central totheir capacity for humanfulfilment.