Gems of bhagavad gita chapter. 18

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Chapter 18 is the final & concluding chapter where the ideas expressed in all the previous chapters are summarised. It starts with the distinction between renunciation & relinquishment.Describes the 3 types of work, agent, intellect & resolve, & duties of the 4 classes of people. Finally, the Lord explain how one can become eligible for following the path of knowledge by selfless actions, & after attaining knowledge, how to attain the status of Brahman.

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Gems of bhagavad gita chapter. 18

  1. 1. Gems of Bhagavad Gita T. K. G. NAMBOODHIRI THIRUVALLA, KERALA INDIA
  2. 2. BHAGAVAD GITA – THE DIVINE SONG-An Introduction  Bhagavad Gita-Part of the Sanskrit Epic Mahabhaaratha.(200 BC to 200 AD)  700 verses in 18 chapters.  A conversation between Lord Krishna and his close friend Arjuna in the middle of the battlefield just before the start of the Kurukshetra battle.  Arjuna loses his heart and refuses to fight his teachers and relatives, and Krishna revives him by his wise words of wisdom. TKG Namboodhiri
  3. 3. Gems of Bhagavad Gita CHAPTER 18 MOKSHASANYAASA YOGA THE YOGA OF LIBERATION & RENUNCIATION TKG Namboodhiri
  4. 4. Gems of Bhagavad Gita THIS CONCLUDING CHAPTER OF BHAGAVAD GITA SUMMARISES THE CONTENTS OF THE ENTIRE SCIENCE OF THE GITA. THE IDEAS EXPRESSED IN ALL THE PREVIOUS CHAPTERS MAY BE GRASPED FROM THIS CHAPTER ALONE.THIS 78 VERSES-LONG CHAPTER STARTS WITH A QUESTION FROM ARJUNA ABOUT THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN RENUNCIATION (Sanyaasa) & RELINQUISHMENT (Thyaaga). TKG Namboodhiri
  5. 5. Gems of Bhagavad Gita KAAMYAANAAM KARMANAAM NYAASAM SAMNYAASAM KAVAYO VIDU, SARVAKARMA PHALATHYAAGAM PRAAHUSTHYAAGAM VICHAKSHANAAH. (18.2) Sages know renunciation to be the rejection of all work prompted by desire for their fruits. Experts declare relinquishment to be the giving up of the fruits of all work. TKG Namboodhiri
  6. 6. Gems of Bhagavad Gita YAJNA DAANA THAPAH KARMA NA THYAAJYAM KAARYAME’VA THATH. (18.5) ETHAANYAPI THU KARMAANI SANGAM THYAKTHAA PHALAANI CHA KARTHAVYAAN. (18.6) The works of sacrifice, gift-giving, & penance should not be relinquished; they must necessarily be accomplished. But even these works must be done without attachment to them & to their fruits. TKG Namboodhiri
  7. 7. Gems of Bhagavad Gita NIYATHASYA THU SANYAASAH KARMANO NOPAPADYATHE’, MOHAATHASYA PARITHYAAGASTHAAMASAH PARIKEERTHITHAH. (18.7) It is unreasonable to renounce obligatory work. Its renunciation due to delusion is well-known to be thaamasic. TKG Namboodhiri
  8. 8. Gems of Bhagavad Gita DUKHAMITHYE’VA YATH KARMA KAAYAKLE’SA BHAYAATHYAJE’TH, SA KRITHWAA RAAJASAM THYAAGAM NAIVA THYAAGAPHALAM LABHE’TH. (18.8) Due to bodily fatigue, if work is given up as troublesome, such relinquishment is Raajasic; such relinquishment does not produce any accruable result (liberation). TKG Namboodhiri
  9. 9. Gems of Bhagavad Gita KAARYAMITHYEVA YATH KARMA NIYATHAM KRIYATHE’ ARJUNA, SANGAM THYAKTHWAA PHALAM CHAIVA SA THYAAGAH SAATHVIKO MATHAH. (18.9) Holding the view that obligatory work is to be done without break, the relinquishment of both attachment & fruit of work is deemed saathwic. TKG Namboodhiri
  10. 10. Gems of Bhagavad Gita NA DWE’SHTYAKUSALAM KARMA KUSALE’ NAANUSHAJJATHE’, THYAAGEE SATHWASAMAAVISHTO ME’DHAAVEE CHCHINNA SAMSAYAH. (18.10) The renouncer, well established in Sathwa, intelligent and rid of doubts, neither hates unmeritorious work nor clings to meritorious work. TKG Namboodhiri
  11. 11. Gems of Bhagavad Gita NA HI DEHABRITHA SAKYAM THYAKTHUM KARMAANYASE’SHATHAH, YASTHU KARMAPHALATHYAAGI SA THYAGEETHYABHIDHEEYATHE’. (18.11) Embodied man cannot indeed totally renounce work; but he who relinquishes the fruits of work is said to be the relinquisher TKG Namboodhiri
  12. 12. Gems of Bhagavad Gita ANISHTAMISHTAM MISRAM CHA THRIVIDHAM KARMANAH PHALAM, BHAVATHYATHYAAGINAAM PRE’THYA NA THU SANYAASINAAM KWACHITH. (18.12) The fruit of work is three-fold- disagreeable, agreeable & mixed. It accrues to the non- relinquishers after their death, but never to the renouncers. TKG Namboodhiri
  13. 13. Gems of Bhagavad Gita ADHISHTAANAM THATHAA KARTHAA KARANAM CHA PRITHAGWIDHAM, VIVIDHAASCHA PRITHAK CHESHTAA DAIVAM CHAIVAATHRA PANCHAMAM. (18.14) The five causes promoting the accomplishment of any work are: the ground (the body), the agent (self), various instruments (sense organs), & manifold movements (of 5 vital airs), together with the supernatural (sun etc. guiding the sense organs)as the fifth among them. TKG Namboodhiri
  14. 14. Gems of Bhagavad Gita SAREERAVANGMANOBHIRYATH KARMA PRAARABHATHE’ NARAH, NYAAYAM VA VIPAREETHAM VA PANCHAITHE’ THASYA HETHAVAH. (18.15) These are the five causes of whatever work, right or wrong, that a man initiates with his body, speech, & mind TKG Namboodhiri
  15. 15. Gems of Bhagavad Gita YASYA NAAHAMKRITHO BHAAVO BUDHIR YASYA NA LIPYATHE’, HATHWAAPI SA IMAAM LLOKAAN NA HANTHI NA NIBADHYATHE’. (18.17) He whose attitude is unegoistic, & whose understanding is untainted, even after slaying all living beings, neither slays nor is bound. He knows that the five factors superimposed on the self are the doers & he is only a witness & not the receiver of the fruits of action. TKG Namboodhiri
  16. 16. Gems of Bhagavad Gita JNAANAM JNE’YAM PARIJNAATHA THRIVIDHAA KARMACHODANA, KARANAM KARMA KARTHE’THI THRIVIDHAHAH KARMA SANGRAHAH. (18.18) Knowledge, the knowable & the knower is the three-fold mandate to work. The instrument, work, & agent constitute the three-fold factors of work. TKG Namboodhiri
  17. 17. Gems of Bhagavad Gita SARVA BHUTHE’SHU YENAIKAM BHAVAMAVYYA MEEKSHATHE’, AVIBHAKTHAM VIBHAKTHE’SHU THAJJNAANAM VIDHI SATHVIKAM. (18.20) Now the Lord gives the 3-fold division of Knowledge, Work, & the Doer. The knowledge by which one sees in all beings a single immutable existence though these beings themselves are divided, is Saathwic. TKG Namboodhiri
  18. 18. Gems of Bhagavad Gita PRITHAKTHWE’NA THU YATHJNAANAM NAANAABHAAVAAN PRITHAGWIDHAAN, VE’THI SARVE’SHU BHOOTHE’SHU THATHJNAANAM VIDHI RAAJASAM. (18.21) Know that the knowledge by which one knows all beings as existents of various kinds, is Raajasic. TKG Namboodhiri
  19. 19. Gems of Bhagavad Gita YATHTHU KRITHSNAVADE’KASMIN KAARYE’ SAKTHAMAHAITHUKAM, ATHATHWAARTHAVADALPAM CHA THATHTHAAMASAMUDAAHRITHAM. (18.22) The knowledge that sticks unreasonably to an object as if it were a whole, & whose content is false & petty, is known as Thaamasic. TKG Namboodhiri
  20. 20. Gems of Bhagavad Gita NIYATHAM SANGARAHITHAM ARAAGADWE’SHATHAH KRITHAM, APHALAPRE’PSUNA KARMA YATHATHSAATHWIKAM UCHYATHE. (18.23) Saathwic work is that work which is obligatory, done without attachment, passion or aversion, & done without any desire for its fruits. TKG Namboodhiri
  21. 21. Gems of Bhagavad Gita MUKTHA SANGO ANAHAMVAADEE DRITHUTHSAAHASAMANWITHAH, SIDHYASIDHYORNNIRVIKAARAH KARTHA SATVIKA UCHYATHE’. (18-26) He who has given up attachment, is unegoistic, rich in resolve & zeal, & remains unchanged in success & failure, is said to be a Saathwic agent. TKG Namboodhiri
  22. 22. Gems of Bhagavad Gita PRAVRITHIM CHA NIVRITHIM CHA KAARYAAKAARYE’ BHAYAABHAYE’, BANDHAM MOKSHAM CHA YA VETHI BUDHIH SA PARTHA SATHWIKEE. (18.30) Arjuna, that intellect is Saathwic which knows action & inaction, duty & non-duty, fear & fearlessness, & bondage & liberation. TKG Namboodhiri
  23. 23. Gems of Bhagavad Gita DRITHYAA YAYAA DHAARAYATHE’ MANAH PRAANENDRIYAKRIYAAH, YOGE’NA AVYABHICHAARINYA DRITHIH SA PARTHA SAATHWIKEE. (18.33) Arjuna, the unfaltering resolve by which one, through concentration, maintains the functions of mind, vital breaths & the senses, in accordance with the scriptures, is said to be Saathwic. TKG Namboodhiri
  24. 24. Gems of Bhagavad Gita ABHYAASAADRAMATHE’ YATHRA DUKHAANTHAM CHA NIGACHCHATHI, YATHADAGRE’ VISHAMIVA PARINAAME’ AMRITHOPAMAM, THATSUKHAM SATHWIKAM PROKTHAMAATHMA BUDHI PRASAADAJAM.(18.36 &37). That pleasure is Saathwic which in the beginning is like poison, but at the end is like ambrosia, & in which, through practice, one delights, reaching the end of all pain. TKG Namboodhiri
  25. 25. Gems of Bhagavad Gita NA THADASTHI PRITHWIVYAAM VA DIVI DE’VE’SHU VA PUNAH, SATHWAM PRAKRITHIJYRMUKTHAM YADE’BHIH SYAATHRIBHIRGUNAIH. (18.40) In this world, in heaven or again, among gods, there is none who is free from these three constituents of Nature, namely, Sathwam, Rajas, & Thamas. TKG Namboodhiri
  26. 26. Gems of Bhagavad Gita BRAHMANA KSHATRIYA VISAAM SOODRANAM CHA PARANTHAPA, KARMAANI PRAVIBHAKTHAANI SWABHAAVAPRABHAVYRGGUNAIH.(18.41) Now the Lord explains the way the duties of the 4 types (Varnaas) of people, Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya, & Soodra, are allotted based on their in-born constituents of nature. TKG Namboodhiri
  27. 27. Gems of Bhagavad Gita SAMO DAMASTHAPAH SAUCHAM KSHAANTIR ARJAVAME’VA CHA, JNAANAM VIJNAANAM AASTHIKYAM BRAHMAKARMA SWABHAAVAJAM. (18.42) Restraint of mind & senses, penance, cleanliness, endurance, guilelessness, knowledge, realization, & faith in the scriptures- these constitute the natural work of Brahmins. TKG Namboodhiri
  28. 28. Gems of Bhagavad Gita SAURYAM THE’JO DRITHIRDDAKSHYAM YUDHE’ CHAPYAPALAAYANAM, DAANAMEESWARA BHAAVASCHA KSHAATHRAM KARMA SWABHAAVAJAM. (18.43) Courage, power, resolution, skill, non-flight from battle, generosity, & might constitute the work of Kshatriyas derived from their nature. TKG Namboodhiri
  29. 29. Gems of Bhagavad Gita KRISHI GOWRAKSHA VAANIJYAM VAISYAKARMA SWABHAAVAJAM, PARICHARYAATMAKAM KARMA SOODRASYAPI SWABHAAVAJAM. (18.44) Vaisyas naturally do agriculture, cattle- rearing, & trade. Menial service is the work of Soodras, born of their nature. TKG Namboodhiri
  30. 30. Gems of Bhagavad Gita SWE’ SWE’ KARMANYABHIRATHAH SAMSIDHIM LABHATHE’ NARAH; YATHAH PRAVRITHIR BHOOTHAANAAM YENA SARVAMIDAM THATHAM, SWAKARMANAA THAMABHYARCHYA SIDHIM VINDHATHI MAANAVAH. (18.45 & 46) Man achieves perfection through devotion to his allotted work. One who performs his work as worship to Him, from whom all beings have proceeded & by Whom all the Universe is pervaded, wins perfection. TKG Namboodhiri
  31. 31. Gems of Bhagavad Gita SRE’YAAN SWADHARMO VIGUNAH PARADHARMAATH SWANUSHTITHAATH, SAHAJAM KARMA KAUNTHE’YA SADOSHAMAPI NATHYAJE’TH. (18.47 & 48) One’s own law of righteousness, though defective, is better than that of another, though well observed. Arjuna, work determined by nature, though defective, one should not abandon. ( Swadharma & Sahajam Karma should be observed.) TKG Namboodhiri
  32. 32. Gems of Bhagavad Gita ASAKTHABUDHHIH SARVATHRA JITHAATHMAA VIGATHASPRIHAH, NAISHKARMYASIDDHIM PARAMAAM SANYAASE’NAADHIGACHCHATHI. (18.49) He whose intellect is unattached to objects, whose self is disciplined, & from whom all desires have departed, wins the supreme perfection of worklessness by means of renunciation. TKG Namboodhiri
  33. 33. Gems of Bhagavad Gita SIDHIM PRAAPTHO YATHAA BRAHMA THATHAAPNOTHI NIBODHA ME’, SAMAASE’NAIVA KAUNTHE’YA NISHTAA JNAANASYA YA PARAA. (18.50) Arjuna, know from Me briefly, how one made fit for the discipline of knowledge, reaches Brahman-the supreme consummation of knowledge. TKG Namboodhiri
  34. 34. Gems of Bhagavad Gita The next 3 verses, 18.51, 52, 53, describes the conditioning of the Jnaana Yogi to make him eligible to attain Brahman. With purified intellect, restrained, rejecting sensual objects, without attachment & aversion, in solitude, eating lightly, mind, body & speech controlled, ever meditating, dispassionate, renouncing ego, force, pride, lust, wrath, & possessions, tranquil & without a sense of ownership, one becomes fit for the status of Brahman. TKG Namboodhiri
  35. 35. Gems of Bhagavad Gita BRAHMABHOOTHAH PRASANNAATHMAA NA SOCHATHI NA KAANKSHATHI, SAMAH SARVE’SHU BHOOTHE’SHU MADBHAKTHIM LABHATHE’ PARAAM. (18.54) Becoming Brahman, with a tranquilized mind, he neither grieves nor desires. Treating all beings equally, he wins supreme devotion to Me. TKG Namboodhiri
  36. 36. Gems of Bhagavad Gita BHAKTHYAA MAAMABHIJAANAATHI YAAVAAN YASCHAASMI THATHWATHAH, THATHO MAAM THATHWATHO NJAATHWAA VISATHE’ THADANANTHARAM. (18.55) The one who has won supreme devotion to Me, is able to comprehend Me completely. Thus knowing Me in truth, he merges with Me. TKG Namboodhiri
  37. 37. Gems of Bhagavad Gita SARVAKARMAANYAPI SADAA KURVAANO MADVYAPAASRAYAH, MATHPRASAADAAD AVAAPNOTHI SAASWATHAM PADAMAVYAYAM. (18.56) Though performing all work continuously, in total dependence on Me, due to My grace, one achieves the eternal & immutable status. TKG Namboodhiri
  38. 38. Gems of Bhagavad Gita CHE’THASAA SARVAKARMAANI MAYI SANYASYA MATHPARAH, BUDHIYOGAMUPAASRITHYA MACHCHITHAH SATHATHAM BHAVA. (18.57) MACHCHITHAH SARVADURGAANI MATHPRASAADAATHARISHYASI. (18.58) Mentally surrendering all work to Me, setting Me above all, & resorting to concentrated understanding, fix your mind unceasingly on Me. With your mind fixed on Me, you will overcome all obstacles due to My grace. TKG Namboodhiri
  39. 39. Gems of Bhagavad Gita ISWARAH SARVABHOOTHAANAAM HRIDESHE’ ARJUNA THISHTATHI, BHRAAMAYAAN SARVA BHOOTHAANI YANTHRAAROODHAANI MAAYAYAA. (18.61) God is in the heart of all beings, causing them all to revolve through Maaya (illusion), as though they are mounted on a machine. TKG Namboodhiri
  40. 40. Gems of Bhagavad Gita THAME’VA SARANAM GACHCHA SARVA BHAAVE’NA BHAARATHA, THATH PRASAADAATH PARAAM SAANTHIM STHAANAM PRAAPSYASI SAASWATHAM. (18.62) Arjuna, seek refuge in Him alone with all your heart & all your soul. Due to His grace you will win supreme peace & the eternal status. TKG Namboodhiri
  41. 41. Gems of Bhagavad Gita MANMANAA BHAVA MADBHAKTHO MADYAAJEE MAAM NAMASKURU, MAAME’ VAISHYASI SATHYAM THE’ PRATHIJAANE’ PRIYO ASI ME’. (18.65). Set your mind on Me, be My devotee, sacrifice unto Me, prostrate before Me, you will surely attain Me. Truly do I promise thus, for you are dear to Me. TKG Namboodhiri
  42. 42. Gems of Bhagavad Gita SARVA DHARMAAN PARITHYAJYA MAAME’KAM SARANAM VRUJA, AHAM THWA SARVAPAAPE’BHYO MOKSHAYISHYAMI MA SUCHAH. (18.66). Sri Krishna concludes his advise to Arjuna with this verse which forms the quintessence of all Upanishads: Giving up all Dharma (acts of righteousness), thus freed from all work, seek refuge in Me ( Universal Self or God) alone; I shall liberate you from all sins; do not grieve. TKG Namboodhiri

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