Trace Events In Western Europe From The FallPresentation Transcript
Trace events in western Europe from the fall of the western Roman Empire to the Emergence of Nation-states in the Late Medieval Period Textbook pp. 182-85 #1 all parts #2 all parts Include in your identifications of Clovis and Charlemagne responses to #4 and #5
1a. Clovis (including #4)
Clovis, king of the Franks, in 486 conquered the former Roman province of Gaul (today’s France)
Clovis converted to Christianity because it was the politically expedient thing to do, according to the textbook. The citizens of Gaul, having been under Roman authority, were already Christian.
Clovis added power to the Frankish kingdoms by adding the lands of Gaul and by his allying himself with the Church based in Rome
Religion of the Prophet Muhammed (sometimes spelled Mohammed)
“ Appeared in Arabia” in 632
THIS date coincides with the rise in Europe of the early middle ages, so it’s important that we recognize its insurgence chronologically
Muslim armies conquered former lands of the Roman empire from the Middle East across North Africa and into Spain
Charles Martel led the Franks to defeat the Muslims and halt their advance into Europe at the Battle of Tours in 732
Chanson de geste (song of heroic deeds) is the genre of epic poetry: the Song of Roland was created out of the tradition of the Christian warrior defending his homeland and winning new lands for Christ
1c. Charlemagne (including #1d, 1e, 2c, 2d, and 5)
His name means Charles the Great
Beginning around A.D. 768, Charlemagne ruled much of his 46 years in battle against the “Muslims in Spain, Saxons in the north, Avars and Slavs in the east, and Lombards in Italy”
Consequently, his rule covered much of those same lands (current-day France, Germany, and much of Italy)
Grandson of Charles Martel, son of Pepin the Short
Pope Leo III called on Charlemagne in 800 to repel unruly nobles in Italy, and the Frankish army was successful in doing the Pope dirty work
So, the Pope crowned Charlemagne emperor on Christmas Day
THIS ACT united Christendom in the West under both the head of the Church and the head of the government… hmmm…
Of course, this act upset the emperor of the eastern half of the Roman Empire in Constantinople
Charlemagne worked closely with the Church to send missionaries to the fringes of his conquered lands
Appointed powerful nobles to rule local regions
Missi dominici – officials under direct authority of Charlemagne kept tabs on these local nobles; their job was to check on the condition of roads, listen to citizens’ grievances, and keep the scales of justice in balance
These officials administered the law so that even the poor, the widows, and the old were cared for – sounds like the book of James !!!
Founded a school based on a course of Latin learning called a curriculum
This school at Aachen (C’s capital) was led by Alcuin of York, a well-respected scholar
Curriculum: grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy
Alcuin “hired scholars to copy ancient manuscripts” – that’s primary source research!
Alcuin’s system became the model for education across Europe
LAST of Charlemagne
Charlemagne improved his rule by means of encouraging the spread of the Gospel, assigning missi dominici , and advancing learning via the Latin curriculum. Charlemagne effectively blended German, Roman, and Christian cultures and influences.
Upon his death, there was some confusion as to whom would reign; finally, in 843, the Treaty of Verdun settled the conflict by dividing the empire into three parts to be ruled by three grandsons.
1f. Vikings (no, not the purple people eaters in Minnesota)
Scandinavian raiders who attacked coastal towns OF and sailed up rivers to plunder IN northern Europe and Britain
Scandinavian means what is today Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
Vikings upset the final remnants of Charlemagne’s empire after the Magyars had struck blows from the south and east from the area we today call Hungary
Known for trading and sailing and those Capital One credit card commercials!
Latin for “middle age”
The time between the more enlightened civilizations of the Greeks and Romans and what we will see as the Renaissance and Protestant Reformation
“a sparsely populated, undeveloped area on the outskirts of a civilization”
For example, in American colonial times, the frontier was considered anything west of the Appalachian Mountains.