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The Scientific Revolution
 

The Scientific Revolution

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    The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution Presentation Transcript

    • THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
    • MAJOR FACTORS LEADING TO THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
      • -rise of universities in the High Middle Ages -broadening of the curriculum
      • -rising community of intellectuals pursuing knowledge
      • interest in the idea of human potential and progress
      • -recovery of classical texts (mathematics)
      • -Renaissance pattern of patronage allowed individuals to pursue scientific investigation
        • (Galileo was supported by the Medicis)
    • THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTION A SHIFT TO HELIOCENTRISM
    • NICOLAUS COPERNICUS
      • (1473-1543)
      • -Polish astronomer
      • -questioned Ptolemy’s complicated explanation of planetary movements
      • -proposed a sun centered universe (heliocentric)
      • -planets and stars revolved around a
      • fixed sun
      • - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres - published in 1543
    • ON THE REVOLUTION OF THE HEAVENLY SPHERES
    •  
    • COPERNICAN SYSTEM
    •  
    • JOHANNAS KEPLER (1571-1630)
      • -German astronomer
      • -formulated the three laws of planetary motion
      • -orbits of the planets are elliptical
      • -velocity of a planet’s orbit is not
      • uniform
      • -time it takes a planet to orbit the sun is
      • related to its distance from the sun
      • -Kepler provided sound mathematical proofs
      • for Copernicus’ heliocentric theory
    • JOHANNAS KEPLER THE THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION
    • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
      • - Italian philosopher and astronomer
      • -viewed the physical universe as a “Book of Nature…written in mathematical characters.”
      • Improved on the telescope
        • allowed him to observe the motion of the planets and the surface of the sun and moon
      • -came to accept Copernicus’ idea of a heliocentric universe (based on observations)
      • The Dialogue- Galileo’s discussion of his ideas regarding heliocentrism
      • - Galileo’s views were challenged by the Church
        • Church feared that helio-centrism would undermine its authority and theology
          • Based on the geo-centrism of Aristotle
      • -Galileo was brought before the Inquisition
      • works were banned and teachings were condemned
        • placed on the Index of Prohibited Books
      • -he was threatened with torture and excommunication and was placed under house arrest
      • -Galileo recanted his views shortly before his death
    • GALILEO PROVIDED EVIDENCE FOR HELIOCENTRICISM ( OBSERVATIONS OF THE MOONS OF JUPITER)
    • GALILEO OBSERVED JUPITER AND THE ROTATION OF ITS MOONS
    • THE DIALOGUE
    • SIR ISAAC NEWTON
    • Isaac Newton (1642-1723)
      • -English mathematician – Cambridge University
      • -built on the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and
      • Galileo (Newtonian synthesis)
      • -1686 formulated the mathematics for the universal law of gravitation
        • (every physical body in the universe exerts a force on every other body)
      • -proved that the universe was governed by precise mathematical relationships
      • -Newton was deeply Christian (theistic) in his thinking
      • the physical order “can be the effect of nothing else than the wisdom and skill of a powerful ever-living agent.”
      • -the science of Newton would lay the foundation for the science of the western world
    • UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION NEWTONIAN SYNTHESIS-RATIONAL PROOF FOR THE HELIOCENTRIC MODEL
    • NEWTON’S LAW OF GRAVITY
    •  
    • SIR FRANCIS BACON EMPIRICISM (SCIENTIFIC METHOD) INDUCTIVE –TRUTH CLAIMS HAD TO BE EMPIRICIALLY VERIFIED
    • Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
      • - English politician and writer (not a scientist)
      • -knowledge comes through observation and experimentation (SCIENTIFIC METHOD)
      • -allow the “facts” to speak for themselves and draw conclusions based on those facts
      • ( inductive reasoning-EMPIRICISM )
      • - increase in knowledge would lead to powerful nations and an increase in personal wealth
    • EMPIRICAL MODEL
      • ALL KNOWLEDGE HAD TO BE EMPIRICALLY (SCIENTIFICALLY) VERIFIED TO BE VALID
    • INDUCTIVE MODEL
    • RENE’ DESCARTES “I think, therefore, I am.”
    • Rene’ Descartes 1596-1650
      • French mathematician
      • Invented analytical geometry
      • Developed a scientific method based on rational deduction rather than empirical induction
        • Stressed rational speculation and reflection
      • Descartes believed that he could rationally prove the existence of God
    • DEDUCTIVE MODEL
    • DESCARTES’ IDEAS IMPACTED THE WAY THE MODERN WORLD WOULD COME TO LOOK AT KNOWLEDGE AND TRUTH DUALISM
      • OBJECTIVE
      • PHYSICAL (MATTER)
      • SCIENTIFIC
      • MATHEMATICAL
      • RATIONAL
      • SUBJECTIVE
      • MIND
      • SPIRITUAL
      • INTUITIVE
      • NOT OPEN TO EMPIRICAL OR MATHEMATICAL VERIFICATION
    • BLAISE PASCAL 1623-1662
      • FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER
      • FIRST TO USE PROBABILITY THEORY
      • DEVELOPED THE FUNDAMENTALS OF CALCULUS
      • CHALLENGED WHETHER HUMAN REASON COULD REALLY ADDRESS LIFE’S GREATEST QUESTIONS.
      • DEEPLY CHRISTIAN THINKER
      • STRESSED THE “REASON OF THE HEART” OVER PURE REASON AND LOGIC
    • PENSEES
      • COMPILATION OF PASCAL’S REFLECTIONS ON CHRISTIAN TRUTH
      • COMPILED AFTER HIS DEATH
      • MOST WELL KNOW LITERARY WORK
    • PASCAL’S WAGER
      • PASCAL USED A MATHEMATICAL ANALOGY TO EXPLAIN HIS FAITH IN GOD
      • BELIEVED THAT ONE HAD TO TAKE A LEAP OF FAITH TOWARD GOD
      • “ WAGER” THAT GOD’S REVELATION WAS TRUE AND REAL
      • IF ONE WINS THE WAGER – GAIN EVERYTHING
      • LOSE THE WAGER- LOSE NOTHING
      • LOGIC AND REASON COULD NOT BRING ONE TO ULTIMATE CERTAINTY
      • CHALLENGED DESCARTES CONFIDENCE IN REASON AS THE PATH TO TRUTH (GOD)
    • PASCAL’S CALCULATING MACHINE
    • THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION WOULD IMPACT THE DEVELOPMENT OF TWO 18 TH CENTURY MOVEMENTS THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE INDUSTIRAL REVOLUTION