The Renaissance
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The Renaissance

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    The Renaissance The Renaissance Presentation Transcript

    • The Renaissance The beginning of the Modern Period A period of transition
    • Two Major Divisions of the Renaissance
    • The Italian Renaissance
      • The Italian Renaissance (occurred first)
        • Focused on the city-states of northern Italy and Rome
      • The Italian Renaissance tended to be more worldly with a great emphasis on secular pursuits, the humanities, and the arts
      • Wealth and power
      • Knowledge was the key
    • Often called the “Father” of Renaissance humanism
      • The Italian poet, Petrarch
    • The Northern Renaissance
      • The Northern Renaissance occurred later
        • Involved the regions of Northern Europe
        • England
        • Spain
        • France
        • Germanic regions (Holy Roman Empire)
        • The Netherlands
    • Northern Renaissance
      • The spread of the Renaissance was delayed in Northern Europe
        • War and political unrest
          • Hundred Years’ War
          • War of the Roses in Britain
        • Plague and famine
    • “ renaissance” means rebirth The Renaissance began a period of renewed interest and engagement with “classical” (Ancient Greece and Rome) learning, culture, literature, art, style, etc.
    • Major Themes of the Renaissance
      • Humanism (both secular and religious)
        • Human potential, human progress, expansion of human knowledge
      • Secularism -greater emphasis on non-religious values and concerns
      • Individualism -focus on the unique qualities and abilities of the individual person
    • Major Historical Events of the Renaissance Period
      • Age of Exploration (Period of European Expansion)
      • Protestant Reformation and the Religious Wars
      • Scientific Revolution- Rise of Modern Science
      • The Rise of the Modern Nation-state
    • Background of the Renaissance- High and Late Middle Ages
      • Increased trade and commercial activity during the High Middle Ages
      • Urbanization-growth of cities and towns
      • Commercial and business developments (banking)
      • Middle class merchant elite developed
      • Decline in feudalism
      • A decline in the Church’s hold and control on society and government
      • Growth in vernacular literature/growing literacy
      • Rise of universities and the expansion of learning
    • The Birthplace of the Renaissance
      • The city-states of Northern Italy
      • Florence was the center of the Renaissance
      • Italy was politically fragmented and the city-states often fought for power and control
      • City-states came to be ruled by wealthy and powerful business people (not necessarily nobility)
        • Signori - (despots) and oligarchies (group of individuals) maintained order
    • Florence Major center of trade, banking, cloth production, and the arts
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    • The Medici family of Florence
      • The most powerful family of the Italian Renaissance
      • Came to power through business dealings and banking
        • Bank of the Vatican and the papacy
        • Spent tremendous amounts of money supporting the arts and cultural development (patrons)
        • Medici power often involved corruption and intrigue
    • The Medici Family
    • Medici Pope
    • “ The Adoration of the Magi” depicts the Medici family in procession - Celebration of Medici power and influence
    • Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) The Prince
      • Machiavelli was from Florence
      • Well educated in the classics
      • Career was in public service and he eventually served as the ambassador to France
      • Favored republican rule over despotism
      • Machiavelli was tortured and imprisoned for a time when Medici rule was reinstated after a conflict with a Spanish mercenary army
      • He retired to the country and wrote The Prince
    • The Prince
      • Written in Italian (not Latin)
      • Observations and commentary on political rule and power (Medicis)
      • Addressed the issue of effective rule
        • How to gain and maintain order and control
      • Stressed the practical (pragmatic ) over the ethical or moral
        • More secular and humanistic
      • Challenged the idea of a social order based on God’s will
      • Political science- Politics was to be governed by its own laws
      • “… it is safer to be feared than to be loved…”
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    • The Courtier by Castiglione 1528
      • Written in Italian
      • Treatise on the training of young men in the courtly ideal of a Renaissance gentleman
      • Stressed the value of education and manners
      • Influenced social mores and norms during the period
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    • The Renaissance spread to Northern Europe
    • Focus of the Northern Renaissance
      • The focus of the Renaissance in Northern Europe was more religious
      • Many sought religious reform and a return of the Church to its true mission and spirituality
      • Many were highly critical of the worldliness and corruption in the Church and papacy
      • Northern Renaissance figures believed that education and literacy were key to social and religious reform
      • Advocated the translation of the scriptures into the vernacular languages
    • Major figures of the Northern Renaissance
    • Desiderius Erasmus –scholar and theologian
      • The Praise of Folly
        • Criticism of the abuses and worldliness of the Church and papacy
    • Sir Thomas More
      • Lord Chancellor of England during the reign of Henry VIII- highest political office in England
      • Lawyer and scholar
      • Wrote Utopia – explored the idea of a “perfect” society
      • Eventually executed by Henry VIII for refusing to agree to the king and Parliament’s Act of Supremacy
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    • Utopia
    • Martin Luther
      • Associated with the Protestant Reformation
      • Critical of Church corruption and abuses
      • Sought reform
      • Wrote the first translation of the Bible in German
    • Renaissance Art A reflection of Renaissance ideals and values Emphasis on the classical style and classical themes Humanistic - with an emphasis on the individual Religious art remained very important
    • Characteristics of Renaissance Art
      • Realism
      • Three-dimensional
      • Balanced and ordered
      • Portraits
      • Landscapes and attention to depictions of nature
      • Classical style
      • Depiction of classical themes and stories
    • Humanism: The School of Athens by Raphael - a celebration of classical learning
    • Individualism –Portraits -portraits celebrated the unique qualities and personality of the individual person (two examples by Leonardo da Vinci)
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    • Secularism-non-religious Renaissance art often depicted stories and scenes from classical literature
    • Religion remained a major focal point of Renaissance art - The Sistine Chapel-Michelangelo
    • Michelangelo’s Pieta
    • Northern Renaissance Art
    • Albrecht Durer
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    • Hans Holbein
    • Bruegel
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    • Major innovations of the Renaissance
    • Printing Press
      • 1455
      • Moveable type printing
      • Developed in Germany
      • Associated with Gutenburg
      • 1456 the first Gutenburg Bible was printed
      • Printing press allowed for the spread of knowledge and ideas throughout Europe
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    • The Clock
      • The idea of quantification developed
      • The universe came to be conceived in more quantifiable terms (measurable terms)
      • Allowed for more precise measurements
      • Changed the focus of daily life which had been guided by the rhythms of the Church
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    • The Renaissance brought a new way of thinking and living to Europe A new worldview was emerging The medieval Christian worldview was giving way to a more MODERN (secular and humanistic) view of the world and humanity