The Renaissance
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The Renaissance






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The Renaissance The Renaissance Presentation Transcript

  • The Renaissance The beginning of the Modern Period A period of transition
  • Two Major Divisions of the Renaissance
  • The Italian Renaissance
    • The Italian Renaissance (occurred first)
      • Focused on the city-states of northern Italy and Rome
    • The Italian Renaissance tended to be more worldly with a great emphasis on secular pursuits, the humanities, and the arts
    • Wealth and power
    • Knowledge was the key
  • Often called the “Father” of Renaissance humanism
    • The Italian poet, Petrarch
  • The Northern Renaissance
    • The Northern Renaissance occurred later
      • Involved the regions of Northern Europe
      • England
      • Spain
      • France
      • Germanic regions (Holy Roman Empire)
      • The Netherlands
  • Northern Renaissance
    • The spread of the Renaissance was delayed in Northern Europe
      • War and political unrest
        • Hundred Years’ War
        • War of the Roses in Britain
      • Plague and famine
  • “ renaissance” means rebirth The Renaissance began a period of renewed interest and engagement with “classical” (Ancient Greece and Rome) learning, culture, literature, art, style, etc.
  • Major Themes of the Renaissance
    • Humanism (both secular and religious)
      • Human potential, human progress, expansion of human knowledge
    • Secularism -greater emphasis on non-religious values and concerns
    • Individualism -focus on the unique qualities and abilities of the individual person
  • Major Historical Events of the Renaissance Period
    • Age of Exploration (Period of European Expansion)
    • Protestant Reformation and the Religious Wars
    • Scientific Revolution- Rise of Modern Science
    • The Rise of the Modern Nation-state
  • Background of the Renaissance- High and Late Middle Ages
    • Increased trade and commercial activity during the High Middle Ages
    • Urbanization-growth of cities and towns
    • Commercial and business developments (banking)
    • Middle class merchant elite developed
    • Decline in feudalism
    • A decline in the Church’s hold and control on society and government
    • Growth in vernacular literature/growing literacy
    • Rise of universities and the expansion of learning
  • The Birthplace of the Renaissance
    • The city-states of Northern Italy
    • Florence was the center of the Renaissance
    • Italy was politically fragmented and the city-states often fought for power and control
    • City-states came to be ruled by wealthy and powerful business people (not necessarily nobility)
      • Signori - (despots) and oligarchies (group of individuals) maintained order
  • Florence Major center of trade, banking, cloth production, and the arts
  • The Medici family of Florence
    • The most powerful family of the Italian Renaissance
    • Came to power through business dealings and banking
      • Bank of the Vatican and the papacy
      • Spent tremendous amounts of money supporting the arts and cultural development (patrons)
      • Medici power often involved corruption and intrigue
  • The Medici Family
  • Medici Pope
  • “ The Adoration of the Magi” depicts the Medici family in procession - Celebration of Medici power and influence
  • Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) The Prince
    • Machiavelli was from Florence
    • Well educated in the classics
    • Career was in public service and he eventually served as the ambassador to France
    • Favored republican rule over despotism
    • Machiavelli was tortured and imprisoned for a time when Medici rule was reinstated after a conflict with a Spanish mercenary army
    • He retired to the country and wrote The Prince
  • The Prince
    • Written in Italian (not Latin)
    • Observations and commentary on political rule and power (Medicis)
    • Addressed the issue of effective rule
      • How to gain and maintain order and control
    • Stressed the practical (pragmatic ) over the ethical or moral
      • More secular and humanistic
    • Challenged the idea of a social order based on God’s will
    • Political science- Politics was to be governed by its own laws
    • “… it is safer to be feared than to be loved…”
  • The Courtier by Castiglione 1528
    • Written in Italian
    • Treatise on the training of young men in the courtly ideal of a Renaissance gentleman
    • Stressed the value of education and manners
    • Influenced social mores and norms during the period
  • The Renaissance spread to Northern Europe
  • Focus of the Northern Renaissance
    • The focus of the Renaissance in Northern Europe was more religious
    • Many sought religious reform and a return of the Church to its true mission and spirituality
    • Many were highly critical of the worldliness and corruption in the Church and papacy
    • Northern Renaissance figures believed that education and literacy were key to social and religious reform
    • Advocated the translation of the scriptures into the vernacular languages
  • Major figures of the Northern Renaissance
  • Desiderius Erasmus –scholar and theologian
    • The Praise of Folly
      • Criticism of the abuses and worldliness of the Church and papacy
  • Sir Thomas More
    • Lord Chancellor of England during the reign of Henry VIII- highest political office in England
    • Lawyer and scholar
    • Wrote Utopia – explored the idea of a “perfect” society
    • Eventually executed by Henry VIII for refusing to agree to the king and Parliament’s Act of Supremacy
  • Utopia
  • Martin Luther
    • Associated with the Protestant Reformation
    • Critical of Church corruption and abuses
    • Sought reform
    • Wrote the first translation of the Bible in German
  • Renaissance Art A reflection of Renaissance ideals and values Emphasis on the classical style and classical themes Humanistic - with an emphasis on the individual Religious art remained very important
  • Characteristics of Renaissance Art
    • Realism
    • Three-dimensional
    • Balanced and ordered
    • Portraits
    • Landscapes and attention to depictions of nature
    • Classical style
    • Depiction of classical themes and stories
  • Humanism: The School of Athens by Raphael - a celebration of classical learning
  • Individualism –Portraits -portraits celebrated the unique qualities and personality of the individual person (two examples by Leonardo da Vinci)
  • Secularism-non-religious Renaissance art often depicted stories and scenes from classical literature
  • Religion remained a major focal point of Renaissance art - The Sistine Chapel-Michelangelo
  • Michelangelo’s Pieta
  • Northern Renaissance Art
  • Albrecht Durer
  • Hans Holbein
  • Bruegel
  • Major innovations of the Renaissance
  • Printing Press
    • 1455
    • Moveable type printing
    • Developed in Germany
    • Associated with Gutenburg
    • 1456 the first Gutenburg Bible was printed
    • Printing press allowed for the spread of knowledge and ideas throughout Europe
  • The Clock
    • The idea of quantification developed
    • The universe came to be conceived in more quantifiable terms (measurable terms)
    • Allowed for more precise measurements
    • Changed the focus of daily life which had been guided by the rhythms of the Church
  • The Renaissance brought a new way of thinking and living to Europe A new worldview was emerging The medieval Christian worldview was giving way to a more MODERN (secular and humanistic) view of the world and humanity