P.109 Questions 1 And 2


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P.109 Questions 1 And 2

  1. 1. From p. 109, questions 1 and 2 (all parts) The reading was from pp. 106-09.
  2. 2. 1a. Peloponnesus <ul><li>That big hunk of land attached to the Greek mainland via a thin isthmus. </li></ul><ul><li>South of Attica’s Athens. </li></ul><ul><li>Home of Spartan culture. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1b. Solon <ul><li>Reformer of Athenian government; elected “Archon” (chief official) in 594 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocracy (rule by a very few, elite, extremely wealthy landowners) developed over time into oligarchy (rule is spread across more classes, particularly landowning businessmen). </li></ul><ul><li>These shifts in the demographic leadership of the Greek city-states came to be called democracy as more reforms gave greater access to political power, influence, and control to more people. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1b. MORE Solon <ul><li>His reforms included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlawing debt slavery (freeing those already sold into debt slavery); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening high governmental offices to more citizens; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granting citizenship to some foreigners; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving Athenian assembly greater authority in important decisions; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging the export of olive oil and wine in order to help farmers and merchants. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 1c. Cleisthenes <ul><li>Came to rule in 507 B.C. as another reformer after Pisistratus (546 B.C.). </li></ul><ul><li>Set up the Council of 500 to extend more political access to more of the ordinary citizenry. </li></ul><ul><li>Council of 500 prepared laws for the assembly and oversaw the day-to-day operations of government. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the assembly into a true legislature where laws were first proposed and debated before passage and enactment. </li></ul><ul><li>ALL MALE CITIZENS over the age of 30 were assembly members!!! </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1d. Zeus <ul><li>Most powerful Olympian god in polytheistic religion of the Greeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Presided over the other gods and the affairs of Man. </li></ul><ul><li>Zeus was anthropomorphic: Man made Zeus in Man’s image. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2a. polis <ul><li>That which the ancient Greeks called their individual city-state. </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of four parts: acropolis, agora, gymnasium, amphitheater. </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller population concentrated in geographically confined area meant that citizens shared directly in political debate and in the results of military campaigns. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2b. acropolis <ul><li>The geographically elevated spot of land where the ancient Greeks built a temple to their “hometown” god or goddess. </li></ul><ul><li>Highest and most fortified area of a Greek city-state. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2c. Monarchy <ul><li>Earliest Greek leadership took the form of kings or queens exercising complete authority over the civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchs were the military defenders of the city-state because they alone could afford the advanced metal weaponry of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled generally from 750 B.C. to 500 B.C. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2d. And 2e. <ul><li>Were answered under 1b. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2f. phalanx <ul><li>A massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Hours of drill reinforced a closely-knit camaraderie among the soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of this battle technique were reflective of democratic nature of Greek civilization. Am I right? </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary citizens paid for their own iron (cheap) helmet, spear, and shield. Opa! </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2g. helot <ul><li>State-owned slaves in ancient Sparta. </li></ul><ul><li>These people HAD been the freely living occupiers of the peloponnesus until the Dorians conquered them. Dorians came to be known as Spartans. </li></ul><ul><li>Helots had to work the land under the severe, harsh rule of the Spartans. The rule had to be harsh because the helots greatly out-numbered the Spartans. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 2h. democracy <ul><li>Government in which the people hold the power. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Greeks were the first civilization to expand the power, influence, and control of the political body to more and more people. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Trivia: <ul><li>Was it one of the Founding Fathers who said that our government was “of the people, for the people, and by the people”? </li></ul><ul><li>Or, is that phrase found in one of our nations founding documents? </li></ul><ul><li>I bring this up because people who are educated beyond their intelligence oftentimes mis-apply this quote. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Still don’t know??? <ul><li>Try President Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address. The words are etched into the interior walls of the Lincoln Memorial. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly eighty years after the Constitution’s ratification, Lincoln redefined the extent of the democratic institutions of the Great Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>You see, the states came first. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1i. Tyrant <ul><li>A ruler who assumes all powers of leadership without outside influence upon his control. </li></ul><ul><li>In ancient Greece, tyrants were generally benevolent because they had risen up out from and among the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia’s state flag has a Latin phrase on it: Sic Semper Tyrannis. </li></ul><ul><li>Without always tyranny, literally. </li></ul><ul><li>I would think that Jefferson is rolling over in his grave to see the extent to which Americans have allowed for the centralization of all power in the hands of the few. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m sorry; did I type that aloud?  </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1j. legislature <ul><li>The law-making body, or branch, of a government. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically consists of the greatest number of citizens possible to propose, debate, and enact laws. </li></ul><ul><li>From Latin, lex, legis for “law.” Oddly enough. </li></ul>