How Did Geography Affect The Civilizations Of ThePresentation Transcript
How DID geography affect the civilizations of the ancient Near East? A review of notes and reading from pp.24-5 and 34-5
What challenges did the Nile River bring to the people there?
Soaked through the land to provide fertile soil from silt deposit for ample crops. Peoples were able to eat!!! Sounds important; I’ll write down that as a note.
Forced people to design and construct dikes, reservoirs, and irrigation ditches, channeling water and storing water for the dry season. Cooperation among individuals was a good thing.
Egyptian settlement was affected by geography
Desert to the east and to the west
Created barrier of defense
Where was settlement?
Farming villages settled closest to the Nile (within ten miles of the river). Called the “Black Land.” Wheat and flax were primary crops.
“ Red Land” was inhabited only by nomadic peoples, perhaps with small herds of livestock.
Geography determined boundaries
Upper Egypt (altitudinal reference, not north or south) thrived from the waterfalls in the southern mountains to within 100 miles of the Mediterranean Sea.
Lower Egypt (yes, the Nile River flows south to north) referred to the delta region where the Nile River emptied into the Mediterranean Sea.
A delta is a triangular area of marshland formed by the deposits of silt at the mouths of some rivers.
Geography is the tie that binds
Menes – ruler of Upper Egypt in 3100 B.C.– linked the two regions of the Egyptian civilization by means of the Nile River. Menes sent officials and armies to unite the civilization.
Trade route of the Nile River was healthy to the economy to the Egyptian civilization alone.
And, the Nile River’s access to the Mediterranean Sea extended trade and wealth beyond the immediate boundaries of Egypt. Let’s head over to the Fertile Crescent to see what’s going on! The folks in Cyprus have the best citrus!
Ideas and information are exchanged, too.
What connections do we see to other times and places?
Forsyth County’s boundary is the Yadkin River. High Rock and Badin Lakes are reservoirs and resources for the production of electrical power due to damming the Yadkin River. The Moravians settled near the river knowing the river’s function in establishing fertile soil for crops.
Raleigh, NC became North Carolina’s new capital after the War for Independence because it was the place along the Neuse River where the first waterfall was.
The Mekong delta is often referred to when reading about U.S. military intervention in Vietnam.
Most European capitals were built in the bend of a river so that the watchmen could see enemy vessels approaching from either direction. “He went to Paris…”
What is Mesopotamia?
Mesopotamia is derived from the Greek and means, “land between two rivers.”
Peoples back then DID NOT call themselves Mesopotamians. Historians call these many civilizations by that nomenclature.
FERTILE SOIL of the Tigris and Euphrates River Valley
Provided surplus food for growing population.
Attracted peoples from other regions due to that very resource. Hey, the Mesopotamians are having a feast. Let’s go live there!
Other peoples brought ideas, information, culture, languages. Wealth of wisdom!
Crossroads: not an Allman Brothers hit! The name of the song is actually “Melissa.”
Geography dictated a governmental role
Floods had to be harnessed via dikes and ditches to limit ravages of the flood and to retain precious topsoil.
Priests and royal officials held these leadership positions.
Evidence of a global flood?
The Sumerian narrative, The Epic of Gilgamesh , relates the story of a “great flood that destroys the world.”
Archaeologists confirm evidence of flood approximately 4900 years ago.
First cities of Sumer
Ur and Erech.
Use of Persian Gulf as access to trade and wealth.
Cities demand interdependency of the citizens. Goods and services in the market determine where free Men can go and do to make money and to think! Interdependency fosters individual liberty, the mainspring of human progress.
No trees to use in construction?
Let’s use the mud along the edge of the river to make bricks for our huts!
Resourcefulness of the people encouraged by natural surroundings.
Again, geography affects wealth.
Trade and transportation to North Africa, India, Asia Minor.
Sumerians made first wheeled vehicles to extend contacts into the desert regions.
Who had the best homework?
Thank you, Hannah Crutchfield, for doing such a bang-up job with the assignment. I liked the way that you worked with the textual materials and made them fit with the assignment.