Applying The Eight To OthersPresentation Transcript
Applying the eight characteristics of civilization: Akkadians, Hittites, et al . Assigned pp.35-37 and 38-44.
Akkadians / Well-organized central government
Sargon, ruler, conquered Sumerian cities about 2300 B.C.
First known empire in history.
Akkadian empire ended with Sargon’s death.
Powerful army to subdue Sumerians.
Akkadians / Cities
Same as those of the Sumerians; Akkadians simply took over their rule.
Babylonians / Cities
Babylonians / Well-organized central government
King Hammurabi, 1790 B.C., united most of Mesopotamia under Babylonian rule.
Publicly recorded civil and criminal law code; Code of Hammurabi. About 270 laws are available for viewing today on the stele (a cylindrical stone with etchings of cunieform writing). Some laws were marred from the stele by conquering Persians.
We’ll look more closely at the content of the Code of Hammurabi next week when we analyze and evaluate the Code against Mosaic Law.
H built well-trained army.
Babylonians / Public works
Hammurabi improved irrigation.
Babylonians / Complex religion
Hammurabi repaired temples.
H promoted MARDUK to be chief Babylonian god over the older Sumerian gods.
So, kiddies, what does that say about the religion of the Babylonians? It was polytheistic.
Hittites / Job specialization
1400 B.C., extracted iron from ore.
Heated iron, pounded out impurities, plunged shaped, malleable iron into cold water. Harder, more durable, sharper edges.
Previous known tools and weapons were made of copper and bronze.
Hittites / Public works
Iron was plentiful, so government armed more people at less expense.
Hittites / Well-organized central government
Ruled Mesopotamian region from 1400 B.C. to about 1200 B.C.
Hittites / Art and architecture
Ironworking knowledge of the skill and trade spread across Asia, Africa, and Europe.
If that “new technology” spread so quickly, then isn’t it possible for peoples of many languages to spread apart from this region to develop their own cultures and worldviews?
Assyrians / Well-organized central government
1100 B.C. – 600 B.C.
Fearsome warriors in army.
Used iron weapons.
Developed extensive laws regulating life within the royal household.
Women of the palace were confined to certain quarters and had to be veiled in public.
Loot from military victories paid to fancy palaces amid well-planned cities.
Assyrians / Complex religion
Assur – god to be appeased in order to bring peace and order
Assyrians / Cities
Nineveh, founded by King Assurbanipal.
Assyrians / Art and architecture
One of first libraries founded at Nineveh.
Scribes collected cunieform clay tablets from all over the Fertile Crescent.
NEW Babylonians / Well-organized central government
King Nebuchadnezzar in 612 B.C. conquered Assyrians’ civilization upon death of Assurbanipal. Re-built palaces of Babylon (CITIES).
NEW Babylon / Public works
Nebbie K re-built canals and city walls.
Hanging Gardens, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
NEW Babylonians / Art and architecture
Learning delved into astronomy via priest/astrologers (false worship of heavenly bodies).
Persians / Well-organized central government
Cyrus the Great and his Persian armies defeated Babylonians in 539 B.C.
Largest empire known to Man.
See extent of geographical influence, power, and control on map, p.40.
Persians / Complex religion
“Tolerance” for conquered peoples’ cultures including gods and goddesses created a sense of unity and loyalty to the Persians.
Under Darius (he’s actually introduced in the next slide), festivals in capital cities of Persian provinces let him be seen among the people. THIS note could also have been written under “Cities.”
Persians / More W-O CG
Emperor Darius, unified Persian empire, ruled 522 B.C. to 486 B.C.
Both Cyrus and Darius are accounted for in the book of Daniel .
Darius set up provinces of power headed by local governors, or satraps.
Single code of laws – like Hammurabi.
Persians / Public works
Satraps collected taxes based upon wealth and resources of the province.
Built or repaired hundreds of miles of roads.
Persians / Job specialization
Darius set up common set of weights and measures and use of coins.
People of various employments knew what to expect as they exchanged goods and services. This reassured people that their standard of living was being maintained.
Persians / Complex religion
Zoroaster (c.600 B.C.) was a religious thinker who rejected old Persian gods. He offered a single god, Ahura Mazda, as ruler of the world.
Spiritual warfare existed between Mazda and Ahriman, the prince of lies and evil.
Sacred book: Zend-Avesta (taught of Judgment Day). “Doing Good” was the scale of justice for getting into paradise.
Persians / More CR
THANK YOU, Jordan! You nailed another possible God-less bias on behalf of the publisher. “Two later religions… emerged… stressed similar ideas…” (p.43).
Phoenicians / Job specialization
Sailors and traders among cities of coastal Mediterranean area.
Eastern coast of Mediterranean was fertile and supported farming.
Phoenicians made glass from coastal sand. Drew purple dye from a tiny sea snail (Lydia in Acts was a seller of purple).
Phoenicians / Cities
Tyre and Sidon and Byblos.
See map, p.43, for all the contacts that the Phoenicians made. Aren’t you glad that the Persians were tolerant of the culture of trading of the Phoenicians?
God knew that the Word of God would have to be spread throughout the Mediterranean via boat (Paul’s journeys in Acts ). God uses His Creation – His Created Beings – for His purposes.
Colonies along ALL of Mediterranean coast (even traded with people of British isles for tin).
Phoenicians / Written language
Used papyrus for books. Words bible and bibliography come from the Phoenician city of Byblos.
Phoenician alphabet contained letters that represented spoken sounds.
22 symbols for consonants.
Greeks adapted alphabet and added vowel sounds. Our English alphabet developed from these advancements.
A Question to Ponder
Why would the Persian emperor Darius have encouraged the following or the spread of Zoroastrianism throughout his empire?