Intrinsic = an individual experiences fulfillment through carrying out an activity and helping othersExtrinsic = the external environment and result of the activity are of greater importance due to competition/incentive plansMotivational differences among countries? Of course there are. The question is are the differences significant or can there be an overall theory?There are two starting assumptions about work motivation.
Motivation = universal meaning that all people are motivated to pursue goals they value. However, culture affects content and goals which are being pursued. Ex: US = money; Japan = respect, power; Latin Am = family, respect, job status, good personal lifeWhy is this so? Each of these countries the interest of the worker variesUS focuses on him/herself; Japan =group interest; Latin Am = interest of the employer
Content theories = explains work motivation in terms of what arouses/initiates employee behaviorProcess theories = work motivation in terms of how employee behavior is initiated Most studies focus on content theories b/c process theories are more sophisticated and are applied to individuals in specific settings. This doesn’t help much when trying to apply the findings to a whole country.
Work from bottom up (most to least important to satisfy)Physiological = basic physical needs (have a job so you can pay for food/shelter/clothes)Safety = security and stability (medical insurance, 401K)Social = interaction and affiliation with coworkers (sense of belonging in the office, friendship, work groups)Esteem = power and status; feel important and needed (promotions, awards, pos feedback from boss)Self-Actualization = desire to reach one’s full potential (not necessarily through promotion but also mastering environment, setting goals and achieving them)
Some researchers believe maslow’s hierarchy is too Westernized. Many countries focus on society as a whole, not the individual. Asian cultures = society’s needs. They see maslow’s needs are good needs but should be in a different order. From bottom up (most important to least important to satisfy are social, physiological, safety, then self.
Why? Because there are so many subcultures w/i cultures. Hofstede said should find motivation through job categories. Found link between job types and levels and the need hierarchy. Did own study and found that different classes of workers put emphasis on different needs. MNCs should focus heavily on rewarding lower class workers with physical rewards and create climate of personal challenge for middle to upper level professionals to satisfy the self and esteem needs.
write out on board class’s rankingsEarnings = opportunity for high earningsManager = good working relationship with managerRecognition = recognition you deserve when you do a good jobUp-to-dateness = up to date with technological developments relating to your jobAdvancement = opportunity to go up the ladderTraining = improvement of present skills/ learn new skillsUse of Skills = fully use your skills and abilities on the jobCooperation = work with people who cooperate wellAutonomy = have considerable freedom to adopt your own approach to the jobChallenge = have challenging work to do; work from which you can get personal sense of accomplishment
Two sets of factors influence job satisfaction, Hygiene factor and Motivators.Two questions: When did you feel particularly good about your job? related to job content (included achievement, recognition, advancementWhen did you feel exceptionally bad about your job? job context (salary, working conditions, co policies) Motivators are psychological and relate to upper levels of maslow’s hierarchyHygiene factors are environmental in nature and relate to lower levels.Job satisfaction: if hygiene not taken care of = dissastisfaction; if hyiegene taken care of = may be neither dissatisfaction/satisfaction; only when motivators are present will there be satisfaction (hygiene can prevent dissatisfaction but only motivators can bring satisfaction)
Motivation<br />Psychological process through which unsatisfied wants/needs lead to drives that are aimed at goals/incentives<br />Determinants: intrinsic, extrinsic<br />Basic Motivation Process<br />Unsatisfied need<br />Drive toward goal to satisfy need<br />Need satisfaction<br />
The Universalist Assumption<br />Motivation process = universal<br />Content and goals not<br />Why?<br />Interest of the worker varies by country<br />
The Assumption of Content and Process<br />Content Theories<br />What initiates behavior<br />Broad generalization of country<br />Process Theories<br />How behavior is initiated<br />Individual oriented<br />
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs<br />Assumptions:<br />Lower level first<br />Satisfied need no longer motivator<br />More ways to satisfy higher<br />Self Actualization<br />Esteem<br />Social <br />Safety<br />Physiological<br />
Maslow Cont’d<br />Too Westernized <br />Focused on individual needs<br />Some countries have different order to needs<br />Asian cultures focus on society’s needs<br />Social, Physiological, Safety, Self<br />
Hofstede’s View of Maslow’s Needs<br />Need satisfaction profile NOT useful to address motivation<br />Job categories<br />Self & esteem = professionals<br />Safety & physiological = low-level workers<br />Physiological & Social = unskilled workers<br />Universal<br />
Top 10 Ranking Goals for Professionals<br />Recognition<br />Earnings<br />Up-to-dateness<br />Advancement<br />Training<br />Cooperation<br />Use of Skills<br />Manager<br />Challenge<br />Autonomy<br />