Space: The Final Frontier Chapters 28-31
Space Exploration <ul><li>Probes- unmanned missions have and continue to explore space </li></ul><ul><li>Manned- began in ...
 
<ul><li>Rocket- Launches spacecraft, after launch it is jettisoned </li></ul><ul><li>Control module- Holds 3 crew, all eme...
 
 
 
Gravity <ul><li>Isaac Newton- English scientist who made huge advances in motion, gravitation, optics and mathematics </li...
Inner Planets <ul><li>Terrestrial Planets- “terra~” Earth; Earth-like planets </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the 4  inner pla...
Mercury <ul><li>Closest planet to the sun </li></ul><ul><li>No moons </li></ul><ul><li>1 day (rotation on axis)= 1407.6 ho...
Mercury- cont’d <ul><li>Temp- 427 °C (day) and -173°C (night) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest difference in solar system </l...
 
Venus <ul><li>2 nd  planet </li></ul><ul><li>No moons </li></ul><ul><li>Brightest object in the sky (b/c its closest and r...
Venus-Cont’d <ul><li>Atmosphere-although closest to Earth, physically atmosphere is very different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C...
Venus- Cont’d <ul><li>Surface- Smoothed by lava flows </li></ul><ul><li>Interior- size and density similar to Earth </li><...
 
Earth- 3 rd  Rock from Sun <ul><li>Water in all 3 states </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere, N 2 , O 2 , CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
The Moon <ul><li>Unique in solar system, 4th largest in solar system </li></ul><ul><li>Radius is 27% of Earth’s Radius </l...
 
Lunar Surface <ul><li>Moon is brightest object in OUR sky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albedo- amount of sunlight a surface refle...
Lunar Surface <ul><li>No Erosion ( No atmosphere, no weather   except creep and impacts) </li></ul><ul><li>Highlands- lig...
Moon cont’d <ul><li>Age- Highlands- 3.8-4.6 billion years old </li></ul><ul><li>Maria- 3.1- 3.8 billion years old </li></u...
How was the Moon formed? <ul><li>1. Capture theory- not accepted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon was captured by Earth during f...
Mars <ul><li>“ Red Planet” 4 th  Planet </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere similar to Venus, lower pressure    less greenhouse ...
Mars- Cont’d <ul><li>2 Moons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phobos (the God of Panic)- closest moon in solar system, very tiny, spi...
 
 
Asteroid Belt <ul><li>Belt of sub- planetary debris between inner planets and outer planets orbiting sun </li></ul><ul><li...
Gas Giants <ul><li>Outer Planets </li></ul><ul><li>Interiors filled with gases and they all have very tiny solid cores </l...
What’s a planet?? <ul><li>According to  IAU resolution  a 'planet': </li></ul><ul><li>must be in orbit around the  Sun .  ...
Jupiter <ul><li>Largest planet, 5 th  from sun </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter is 11times Earth’s, 10 x smaller than the sun </...
 
Jupiter’s Rotation <ul><li>Fast </li></ul><ul><li>1 day= 10 Earth Hours (shortest in Solar system) </li></ul><ul><li>1 yea...
 
 
Jupiter's 4 (major) Moons <ul><li>63 Moons </li></ul><ul><li>Io-  discovered by Galileo, ice and rock, SO 2  atmosphere, h...
Jupiter’s Moons Cont’d <ul><li>Europa- found by Galileo; Composed of frozen water; Has  layers similar to Earth;  thin oxy...
Saturn <ul><li>6 th  planet, 2 nd  largest </li></ul><ul><li>57 known moons, Titan is largest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd  ...
 
 
Uranus <ul><li>7 th  Planet-  </li></ul><ul><li>11 rings </li></ul><ul><li>27 moons </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere- blue (me...
 
Neptune <ul><li>8 th  and LAST planet </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere- H, He, CH 4  (methane) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue in c...
Neptune Cont’d <ul><li>1 Day=16.11 Earth hours </li></ul><ul><li>1 year= 164.79 Earth years </li></ul>
 
 
Pluto? <ul><li>1 st  dwarf planet </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller than planet </li></ul><ul><li>Partially rock and partially ice...
 
Formation of the Solar System <ul><li>Collapsing interstellar cloud formed a solar nebula   sun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neb...
 
Comet <ul><li>Small, icy bodies with highly eccentric orbits </li></ul><ul><li>1-10 km in size </li></ul><ul><li>Coma- hea...
 
Stars- The Sun <ul><li>The Sun- 330,000 times mass of Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density- near gas giants, but the center...
The Sun Continued <ul><li>Solar Winds- extend outwards (ions   cause Northern and Southern lights </li></ul><ul><li>Sun S...
 
The Sun- Interior <ul><li>Fusion- 2 atomic nuclei combine </li></ul><ul><li>Fission- Splitting of a nucleus </li></ul><ul>...
Other Stars <ul><li>Constellations- a group of stars </li></ul><ul><li>Binary- two stars gravitationally pulled together <...
Measuring Stars <ul><li>Masses of other “suns”- .1  100 x our sun </li></ul><ul><li>Magnitude- Brightness of a star </li>...
Life Cycle of a Star <ul><li>Depends on the size of the star </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Size (0-4 times sun) </li></ul><ul><...
 
Life Cycle <ul><li>Giant 4-8 times Sun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Giant expansion   becomes Super giant </li></ul></ul><ul...
Black Hole <ul><li>Massive Star that implodes (due to gravity), and contracts inward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity is so i...
Galaxies <ul><li>Group of stars, planets, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Milky Way- Barred spiral Galaxy, our home </li></ul><ul><u...
 
Types of Galaxies <ul><li>Spiral- arms coming off of center </li></ul><ul><li>Barred-spiral– Similar to Milky Way </li></u...
Universe <ul><li>All Galaxies are contained in Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Planet Example-  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Unive...
Expanding Universe <ul><li>All galaxies are moving away from each other (Hubble, 1929) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hubble’s Law-...
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Space Lecture

  1. 1. Space: The Final Frontier Chapters 28-31
  2. 2. Space Exploration <ul><li>Probes- unmanned missions have and continue to explore space </li></ul><ul><li>Manned- began in 1950’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1957- Sputnik 1- Soviets satellite Earth (unmanned) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1961- Vosok 1- Yuri Gagarin 1 st in outer space (Russian) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury Mission- (US) Alan Shepard (5/5/61) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1963- Project Gemini- 2 Person Missions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1967- Apollo- Goal to go to the moon- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7/20/69- Apollo 11 landed on moon </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Rocket- Launches spacecraft, after launch it is jettisoned </li></ul><ul><li>Control module- Holds 3 crew, all emergency and launch operations </li></ul><ul><li>Service Module- Contained bulk of equipment, oxygen tanks, jettisoned </li></ul><ul><li>Lunar module- contained landing EQ, jettisoned </li></ul>
  4. 8. Gravity <ul><li>Isaac Newton- English scientist who made huge advances in motion, gravitation, optics and mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Universal Gravitation- Every pair of bodies (in universe) attract every other with force proportional to the product of their masses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 9. Inner Planets <ul><li>Terrestrial Planets- “terra~” Earth; Earth-like planets </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the 4 inner planets </li></ul><ul><li>Close to Earth’s size </li></ul><ul><li>Have rocky surfaces </li></ul>
  6. 10. Mercury <ul><li>Closest planet to the sun </li></ul><ul><li>No moons </li></ul><ul><li>1 day (rotation on axis)= 1407.6 hours </li></ul><ul><li>1 year (orbit around sun)= 1.5 roations  2 years=3days </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 Size of Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Almost no atmosphere- O 2 and Na </li></ul>
  7. 11. Mercury- cont’d <ul><li>Temp- 427 °C (day) and -173°C (night) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest difference in solar system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interior- high density  iron/nickel core 42% of planet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like if crust and mantle were removed (maybe a collision) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 13. Venus <ul><li>2 nd planet </li></ul><ul><li>No moons </li></ul><ul><li>Brightest object in the sky (b/c its closest and reflects light [albedo .75]) </li></ul><ul><li>Thick clouds of sulfuric acid cover the sky </li></ul><ul><li>1 day=243 Earth days </li></ul><ul><li>1 year=almost 1 day (244 Earth days) </li></ul><ul><li>Spins clock wise, opposite most planets (??collision) </li></ul>
  9. 14. Venus-Cont’d <ul><li>Atmosphere-although closest to Earth, physically atmosphere is very different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 and N 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Atmospheric pressure 92 X Earth’s (ie under 915 m of water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clouds- made of sulfuric acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Effect- no liquid water, it’s the hottest planet </li></ul></ul>
  10. 15. Venus- Cont’d <ul><li>Surface- Smoothed by lava flows </li></ul><ul><li>Interior- size and density similar to Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior similar ? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 17. Earth- 3 rd Rock from Sun <ul><li>Water in all 3 states </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere, N 2 , O 2 , CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Precession – wobble in rotation, takes 26,000 years to complete a cycle </li></ul>
  12. 19. The Moon <ul><li>Unique in solar system, 4th largest in solar system </li></ul><ul><li>Radius is 27% of Earth’s Radius </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is more than 1% of Earth's </li></ul><ul><li>Moon is also farther away than most moons </li></ul><ul><li>Also solid, rocky body </li></ul><ul><li>Only large moon among inner planets </li></ul>
  13. 21. Lunar Surface <ul><li>Moon is brightest object in OUR sky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albedo- amount of sunlight a surface reflects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moon’s is .07 (7%) very small </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth .31 (31%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moon is mostly black (made of basalt)  why is moon so bright? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Its close! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature- daytime 127 °C; nighttime -173°C (no atmosphere) </li></ul>
  14. 22. Lunar Surface <ul><li>No Erosion ( No atmosphere, no weather  except creep and impacts) </li></ul><ul><li>Highlands- light in color, covered in craters, made of breccias </li></ul><ul><li>Maria (“ocean”) dark, smooth plains, formed from volcanic eruptions (basalt) 3 KM lower than highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Regolith- loose dark rock formed from impacts- in places meters thinck </li></ul>
  15. 23. Moon cont’d <ul><li>Age- Highlands- 3.8-4.6 billion years old </li></ul><ul><li>Maria- 3.1- 3.8 billion years old </li></ul><ul><li>Why? During bombardment lava welled up form interior </li></ul><ul><li>Moons plate tectonics- not really </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EQ monthly- due to tides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has layers like Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core is small ~ 350 Km thick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crust is thickest on far side of moon </li></ul></ul>
  16. 24. How was the Moon formed? <ul><li>1. Capture theory- not accepted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon was captured by Earth during formation of Solar System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What slowed the moon down? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth and Moon made of nearly the same material, what’s the chances of that? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Simultaneous formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed at near same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collision cause moon to break off of Earth </li></ul></ul>
  17. 25. Mars <ul><li>“ Red Planet” 4 th Planet </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere similar to Venus, lower pressure  less greenhouse effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 , N 2 , Ar, O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surface- lots of iron in soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South deeply cratered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North- plains  lava flows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 shield volcanoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olympus Mons- largest size of Arizona largest mountain in solar system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erosional Channels- must have been liquid water, have not found it yet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice at poles- carbon dioxide, dry ice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interior- Iron/ Nickel/ Sulfur core – solid core </li></ul>
  18. 26. Mars- Cont’d <ul><li>2 Moons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phobos (the God of Panic)- closest moon in solar system, very tiny, spiraling inward  either burn up or become a ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deimos (means flight after overwhelming defeat)- smallest moon in solar system </li></ul></ul>
  19. 29. Asteroid Belt <ul><li>Belt of sub- planetary debris between inner planets and outer planets orbiting sun </li></ul><ul><li>Similar in composition to planets but much smaller, the largest one is Ceres (1/4 size of Moon) </li></ul><ul><li>Called Meteoroid if falls toward a planet </li></ul><ul><li>If produces light from burning in atmosphere  meteor </li></ul><ul><li>If it strikes the ground  meteorite </li></ul>
  20. 30. Gas Giants <ul><li>Outer Planets </li></ul><ul><li>Interiors filled with gases and they all have very tiny solid cores </li></ul>
  21. 31. What’s a planet?? <ul><li>According to IAU resolution a 'planet': </li></ul><ul><li>must be in orbit around the Sun . </li></ul><ul><li>must be massive enough to be a sphere by its own gravitational force. More specifically, its own gravity should pull it into a shape of hydrostatic equilibrium . </li></ul><ul><li>must have cleared the neighborhood around its orbit. </li></ul>
  22. 32. Jupiter <ul><li>Largest planet, 5 th from sun </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter is 11times Earth’s, 10 x smaller than the sun </li></ul><ul><li>70% of all planetary mass </li></ul><ul><li>Rings- discovered in 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere- low density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen and Helium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Below hydrogen is liquid metallic hydrogen (only exists under high pressure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electric currents cause magnetic field </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 34. Jupiter’s Rotation <ul><li>Fast </li></ul><ul><li>1 day= 10 Earth Hours (shortest in Solar system) </li></ul><ul><li>1 year= 11.86 Earth years </li></ul><ul><li>Fatter than taller due to fast rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation causes clouds to form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belts- low, warm, dark clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zones- high cool, light clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Red Spot- Large storm 300 yrs old </li></ul></ul>
  24. 37. Jupiter's 4 (major) Moons <ul><li>63 Moons </li></ul><ul><li>Io- discovered by Galileo, ice and rock, SO 2 atmosphere, heated by gravity (Jupiter) molten inside, constant volcanic eruptions, has mtns taller than Mt Everest </li></ul>
  25. 38. Jupiter’s Moons Cont’d <ul><li>Europa- found by Galileo; Composed of frozen water; Has layers similar to Earth; thin oxygen atmosphere produced by breaking of water molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Ganymede- Largest moon in solar system; thin ozone layer produced by breaking of water molecules; frozen water </li></ul><ul><li>Callisto- 3 rd largest in solar system; covered in craters, least dense large moon </li></ul>
  26. 39. Saturn <ul><li>6 th planet, 2 nd largest </li></ul><ul><li>57 known moons, Titan is largest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd largest in solar system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a thick atmosphere of methane and nitrogen, possible like Earth’s early atmosphere, methane exists in all forms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rings- made of rock and ice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 major rings and many ringlets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very thin and the oldest are outside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere- less dense than water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen and helium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia ice cloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic Filed 578x Earth’s aligned with rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 day=10.656 Earth hours </li></ul><ul><li>1 year= 29.4 Earth years </li></ul>
  27. 42. Uranus <ul><li>7 th Planet- </li></ul><ul><li>11 rings </li></ul><ul><li>27 moons </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere- blue (methane) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methane, hydrogen and helium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong magnetic field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uranus rotates sideways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 day = -17.24 Earth hours </li></ul><ul><li>1 year = 84.02 Earth years </li></ul>
  28. 44. Neptune <ul><li>8 th and LAST planet </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere- H, He, CH 4 (methane) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue in color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great dark storm (gone in 1994) others replaced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has supersonic winds (fastest in solar system) unknown cause </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moons – 17 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triton is largest- retrograde (backwards) rotation; thin atmosphere; nitrogen geysers  caused by melting of ice cap by sun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rings 6 </li></ul>
  29. 45. Neptune Cont’d <ul><li>1 Day=16.11 Earth hours </li></ul><ul><li>1 year= 164.79 Earth years </li></ul>
  30. 48. Pluto? <ul><li>1 st dwarf planet </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller than planet </li></ul><ul><li>Partially rock and partially ice </li></ul><ul><li>1 moon Charon </li></ul>
  31. 50. Formation of the Solar System <ul><li>Collapsing interstellar cloud formed a solar nebula  sun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nebula slowed allowing planets to form </li></ul></ul>
  32. 52. Comet <ul><li>Small, icy bodies with highly eccentric orbits </li></ul><ul><li>1-10 km in size </li></ul><ul><li>Coma- head with nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Tail- always points away from the sun b/c it is pushed away </li></ul>
  33. 54. Stars- The Sun <ul><li>The Sun- 330,000 times mass of Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density- near gas giants, but the center 13 times density of lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaseous throughout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temp 1x10 7 K, 18,000,000 °F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere- (photosphere) most light comes from here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosphere- above photosphere visible during eclipse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corona- Extends from chromosphere </li></ul></ul>
  34. 55. The Sun Continued <ul><li>Solar Winds- extend outwards (ions  cause Northern and Southern lights </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Spots- Colder Darker areas of the sun- cycle every 11.2-22.4 years </li></ul><ul><li>Solar flares- violent eruptions of ions and particles  causes disruptions of electrical things on Earth </li></ul>
  35. 57. The Sun- Interior <ul><li>Fusion- 2 atomic nuclei combine </li></ul><ul><li>Fission- Splitting of a nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen fusion drives sun’s energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s ½ through its life- 5 billion years left </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composition- 70.4% hydrogen, 28% Helium, trace of other elements </li></ul>
  36. 58. Other Stars <ul><li>Constellations- a group of stars </li></ul><ul><li>Binary- two stars gravitationally pulled together </li></ul>
  37. 59. Measuring Stars <ul><li>Masses of other “suns”- .1  100 x our sun </li></ul><ul><li>Magnitude- Brightness of a star </li></ul><ul><li>Classification- O, B, A, F, G, K, M </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O is hottest, M is coolest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our sun is a G 2 </li></ul></ul>
  38. 60. Life Cycle of a Star <ul><li>Depends on the size of the star </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Size (0-4 times sun) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusion grows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Giant formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looses outer layers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explodes into white dwarf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If carbon forms at core  stable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 62. Life Cycle <ul><li>Giant 4-8 times Sun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Giant expansion  becomes Super giant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts because of loss of outer shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Super Nova- if no mass is lost (at least not much)  iron is created at core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No more energy  continues to contract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutron Star (very dense) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawn inward and explodes  black hole </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 63. Black Hole <ul><li>Massive Star that implodes (due to gravity), and contracts inward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity is so intense that not even light can escape </li></ul></ul>
  41. 64. Galaxies <ul><li>Group of stars, planets, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Milky Way- Barred spiral Galaxy, our home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Halo of globular cluster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Star density at center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our sun has orbited it 20 times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black hole in the middle </li></ul></ul>
  42. 66. Types of Galaxies <ul><li>Spiral- arms coming off of center </li></ul><ul><li>Barred-spiral– Similar to Milky Way </li></ul><ul><li>Elliptical- </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular- no shape </li></ul><ul><li>Galaxies are found in groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Group- Milky way and 35 other galaxies </li></ul></ul>
  43. 67. Universe <ul><li>All Galaxies are contained in Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Planet Example- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Universe as a Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Galaxy would be similar to a Country (USA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A solar system would be similar to a County (Susquehanna) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Planet would be similar to a School District (Mountain View) </li></ul></ul>
  44. 68. Expanding Universe <ul><li>All galaxies are moving away from each other (Hubble, 1929) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hubble’s Law- Speed of the movement is dependant on the distance (the further we are from something the faster we are moving away from it) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took 10 years to gather data to calculate the constant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Big Bang Theory- All was created from a single explosion at the center of the universe 13.7 billion years </li></ul>

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