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Rocks And Minerals Lecture
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Rocks And Minerals Lecture

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  • 1. Rocks and Minerals Chapters 4 - 6
  • 2. Mineral
    • Naturally Occurring
    • Inorganic
    • Solid
    • Specific chemical composition
    • Definite crystalline structure
  • 3. Naturally Occurring & Inorganic
    • Formed in nature
      • Natural diamonds are minerals
      • Synthetic diamonds are not
    • Inorganic
      • Are not alive, and never was alive
  • 4. Question: Is coal a mineral?
  • 5. Composition
    • Solid
    • Definite Composition – Made up of specific compounds or elements
      • Copper (Cu), Gold (Au), Silver (Ag)
      • Salt (NaCl), Quartz(SiO 2 )
      • Sometimes composition varies slightly (ex : yellow diamonds)
  • 6. Crystalline structure
    • Crystal – Solid in which atoms are arranged in repeating patterns.
      • Atomic Viewer
    • Minerals form in open spaces and crystals grow to fill the space
  • 7. Crystal systems
  • 8. Mineral Formation
    • Magma – As magma cools, the compounds can no longer move freely and chemically interact to form minerals. If magma cools too quickly, you will have no crystals.
    • Solution – If supersaturated, minerals will precipitate.
      • Evaporation – if water evaporates solutions become supersaturated
  • 9. Mineral Groups
    • Silicates (SiO 4 ) Most abundant type of mineral (~96%)
      • Ex : Feldspar, Quartz
      • Tetrahedral Shape (pg 82)
  • 10. Carbonates
    • Carbonates (CO 3 ) – Commonly contains metal bonded with CO 3 , combines easily with other minerals.
      • Ex : Limestone, Marble and Malachite
  • 11. Oxides
    • Oxide – Metal and oxygen.
      • ex : Hematite and magnetite
  • 12. Other mineral groups
    • Sulfides (Element + S 2 )
    • Sulfate (Element + SO 4 )
    • Halides (Element + Halide) – NaCl
    • Native element (just an element)
  • 13. Mineral Identification
    • Color – Caused by trace elements or compounds within a mineral
      • Least reliable clue to mineral identity
    • Luster – The way a mineral reflects light
      • Metallic minerals reflect light
      • Non-metallic do not shine
        • Dull, pearly, waxy or silky
  • 14. Mineral Identification Cont’d
    • Texture – How minerals feel to the touch.
      • smooth, rough, ragged, greasy, soapy, glassy
  • 15. Mineral Identification cont’d
    • Streak – The color of a mineral when it is broken up and powdered.
  • 16. Mineral Identification cont’d
    • Hardness – Measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched.
      • Moh’s Scale 1 – 10 uses basic items that can be carried anywhere (finger nail, iron nail, glass, streak plate)
  • 17. Mineral Identification cont’d
    • Minerals break along planes where atomic bonding is weak (mica)
    • Cleavage – A mineral that splits evenly along planes
    • Fracture – Minerals that break with rough or jagged edges
  • 18. Mineral Identification cont’d
    • Density – Reflects atomic weight and structure of mineral
      • D = M / V
    • Specific Gravity – Measure of density using water
    • Special properties
      • Ex : Double refraction - Calcite
  • 19. Mineral Uses
    • Ores – Mineral that can mined for a profit.
      • Ex : Hematite  Iron
      • Ex : Bauxite  Aluminum
    • Gems – Valuable minerals prized for rarity and beauty.
      • Ex : Rubies and Sapphires, both corundum with trace minerals
    • Under Sea Deposits
      • No owners  international law
      • Not enough technology
      • Destroy oceans
  • 20. Rocks: Mixture of minerals
  • 21. Igneous Rocks
    • Formed from the cooling of magma
      • Crystallization- formation of crystals
    • Ignis- Latin-”fire”
    • Types
      • Intrusive- cool slowly under Earth’s surface, large crystals
      • Extrusive- cool quickly above Earth’s surface, small/no crystals
  • 22. Composition of Magma
    • Slushy mixture of molten rock, gases, and mineral crystals
    • Contain Elements:
      • O, Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Na
      • Silica (SiO 2 ) is most abundant
    • What factors affect magma???
  • 23. Origins of Magma
    • Rocks melt between 800-1220 °C
    • Found in upper mantle or lower crust
    • Geothermal gradient (temperature increase with depth) p101
  • 24. Melting Temperatures
    • Affected by water content, silica content, Type of mineral in magma
      • Oceanic Crust melts at higher temp, than continental crust  b/c high magnesium and iron, low in water
    • Partial Melting- Not all parts of a rock melt at the same time  different minerals are added to magma at different times, changing type of rock formed
  • 25. Melting Temperatures Cont’d
    • Fractional Crystallization- magma cools and crystallizes in reverse order form melting
      • Removing minerals form the magma
  • 26. Bowen’s Reaction Series
    • Predictable pattern of magma cooling
    • Feldspars (calcium rich) change composition to sodium rich rocks gradually
    • Iron-Rich rocks change stepwise with fractional crystallization
      • Rocks form in order of Bowen’s
  • 27. Crystal Separation
    • Since Olivine changes to pyroxene during cooling, why is found in nature at all?
    • Crystal Separate from magma, preserving olivine
  • 28. Layered Intrusions
    • Sometimes magma cools in layers.
    • These “layered intrusions” often have valuable sources of rare metals
  • 29. Classifying Igneous Rocks
    • Intrusive/Extrusive
    • Mineral Composition
      • Felsic- light colored, high silica, Contain Quartz and Feldspars Ex: Granite
      • Mafic- dark in color, lower silica, rich in iron and magnesium Ex: Olivine, Amphibole
      • Ultra-Mafic-Very low silica and very high iron, Magnesium
  • 30. Classifying Igneous Rock Cont’d
    • Grain size- dependant on cooling rate (fast-smaller)
      • Glassy- Cools very quickly, think air or water cooling lava off
  • 31. Grain Size
    • Fine Grain- Fast cooling
    • Course Grain- Slow cooling
    • Porphyritic- Both fast and slow cooling
  • 32. Igneous Rocks as Resources
    • Useful building materials  interlocking crystals give strength
      • Resists weathering
    • Ore Deposits  often found in igneous intrusions
      • Veins- Left-overs from Bowen/s Reactions are often valuable gems (gold, silver, lead, copper)
    • Pegmatites- Veins of very large grain minerals (ores and gemstones)
  • 33.  
  • 34. Diamonds
    • Kimberlites- ultra mafic rock that diamond is found in
    • Found 150-300 Km depth (need VERY high pressure)
  • 35. Buying Diamonds
    • Color- Range from D-Z (D being colorless and Z being bright yellow
      • J and K are great bargains!
    • Clarity
      • Inclusions- Imperfections inside crystal
      • VS 1-2 even SI 1 good deals
  • 36. Buying diamonds
    • Cut- Many ways of cutting
      • Beware of brand cuts
    • Carat Weight- Size by weight of your gem
      • ½ carat diamond about $1,500
  • 37. Sedimentary Rocks
    • Sediments- pieces of solid material deposited by wind, water, ice, gravity or chemical precipitation
    • Weathering- breaking down by physical and chemical processes
      • Produces clastic pieces  “broken pieces”
    • Erosion- transport of rock (rain, ice)
    • Deposition- sediment laid down or sinks to bottom
  • 38. Erosion/Deposition
  • 39. Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
    • Lithification- process by which sediments turn to rocks
      • Must have thick layers of sediment, increasing pressure and temperature
    • Cementation- a chemical process which mineral growth solidifies sediments
  • 40. Features of Sedimentary Rocks
    • Bedding- horizontal rock layers
      • Graded- large particles fall to bottom
      • Cross- inclined layers move across a horizontal surface (sand dune)
  • 41. Features of Sed. Rocks Cont’d
    • Fossils
    • Patterns-- waves
  • 42. Types
    • Clastic-
      • Course Grain-
        • Round- Conglomerate
        • Angular- Breccia
      • Medium Grain
        • Sandstone-filters drinking water
          • Porosity- % of open spaces
      • Fine grain-
        • Siltstone- traps water
  • 43. Types Cont’d
    • Chemical-
      • Evaporites- formed from evaporation
        • Salts
      • Organic- remains of once living organisms
        • Limestone
        • Coal
  • 44. Metamorphic Rocks
    • Rocks that are changed
      • Meta-change
      • Morphe-form
    • Forces- Heat and Pressure
  • 45. Types of Metamorphism
    • Regional- When Heat/pressure affect large regions or bands
  • 46. Types of Metamorphism Cont’d
    • Contact (touch)- Edges of batholith touch an area changing the rocks
  • 47. Types of Metamorphism Cont’d
    • Hydrothermal- Hot water (near volcanoes change rock) ex: Brimstone
  • 48. Metamorphic Textures
    • Foliated- wavy bands of crystals Gneiss (formerly granite)
    • Non-Foliated- no visible layers
  • 49. Rock Cycle

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