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Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
Atmosphere Lecture
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Atmosphere Lecture

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Transcript

  • 1. Atmosphere Chapter 11
  • 2. Structure of Atmosphere
    • Troposphere- closest to earth; contains most of mass of atmosphere; general decrease in temp (bottom  top)
    • Stratosphere- Second Layer
      • Contains Ozone Layer  absorbs ultraviolet radiation  heated layer
    • Mesosphere (middle)- temperature decreases
    • Thermosphere- few air molecules  temp rises to 1000 °C
    • Exosphere- Outer Layer; only H & He found here; no boundary between it and space
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. Solar Radiation p275
    • 6% Reflected by atmosphere
    • 25% Reflected by clouds
    • 4% Reflected by Earth’s surface
    • 15% Absorbed by atmosphere
    • 50% Absorbed by Earth’s surface
  • 6. Measuring the Atmosphere
    • Temperature- how fast molecules move around
      • Heat- transfer of energy
    • Dew Point- temp to which air must be cooled to be saturated (hold as much water as possible  condensation)
      • Air masses cool 10 °C for every 1000m in altitude
      • Clouds form when water reaches dew point
  • 7. Measurement– Cont’d
    • Wind- Cool air (more dense) sinks & forces warm (less dense) air upward
      • Air moves b/c earth is heated unevenly creating imbalances  High and Low pressure
    • Humidity- amount of water vapor in the air
      • Relative humidity (%)= (amt of water vapor)/(amt capable of holding)
  • 8. Clouds
    • Condensation Nuclei- small dirt particles in atmosphere that allow water to condense
    • Orographic lifting- at mountain air is forced up- causing water vapor to travel up (colder air) and reach its dew point  condensing
    • Collision of air masses- causes uplift of warm air and therefore condensation
  • 9. Types
    • Height
      • Cirro- above 6000m
      • Alto- 2000-6000m
      • Strato- below 2000m
    • Shape
      • Cirrus-”hair” wispy, stringy
      • Cumulus- “pile or heap” puffy, lumpy clouds
      • Stratus- “layer” sheets of clouds
      • Nimbus “cloud” low gray rain clouds
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15. Special Clouds
    • Vertical Development- if cloud is warmer than surrounding air/ground, cloud will grow upwards  thunderstorm
      • Cumulonimbus Cloud
  • 16.  
  • 17. Precipitation
    • Water droplets collide & join into larger droplets (coalescence)  too heavy to carry
    • Sleet (ice pellets) form when droplets are carried back up into the cloud, freezing it
    • Hail- layers and layer of sleet built up

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