Atmosphere Lecture

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Atmosphere Lecture

  1. 1. Atmosphere Chapter 11
  2. 2. Structure of Atmosphere <ul><li>Troposphere- closest to earth; contains most of mass of atmosphere; general decrease in temp (bottom  top) </li></ul><ul><li>Stratosphere- Second Layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains Ozone Layer  absorbs ultraviolet radiation  heated layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mesosphere (middle)- temperature decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Thermosphere- few air molecules  temp rises to 1000 °C </li></ul><ul><li>Exosphere- Outer Layer; only H & He found here; no boundary between it and space </li></ul>
  3. 5. Solar Radiation p275 <ul><li>6% Reflected by atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>25% Reflected by clouds </li></ul><ul><li>4% Reflected by Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>15% Absorbed by atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>50% Absorbed by Earth’s surface </li></ul>
  4. 6. Measuring the Atmosphere <ul><li>Temperature- how fast molecules move around </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat- transfer of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dew Point- temp to which air must be cooled to be saturated (hold as much water as possible  condensation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air masses cool 10 °C for every 1000m in altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clouds form when water reaches dew point </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Measurement– Cont’d <ul><li>Wind- Cool air (more dense) sinks & forces warm (less dense) air upward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air moves b/c earth is heated unevenly creating imbalances  High and Low pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humidity- amount of water vapor in the air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative humidity (%)= (amt of water vapor)/(amt capable of holding) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Clouds <ul><li>Condensation Nuclei- small dirt particles in atmosphere that allow water to condense </li></ul><ul><li>Orographic lifting- at mountain air is forced up- causing water vapor to travel up (colder air) and reach its dew point  condensing </li></ul><ul><li>Collision of air masses- causes uplift of warm air and therefore condensation </li></ul>
  7. 9. Types <ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cirro- above 6000m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alto- 2000-6000m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strato- below 2000m </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cirrus-”hair” wispy, stringy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulus- “pile or heap” puffy, lumpy clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratus- “layer” sheets of clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nimbus “cloud” low gray rain clouds </li></ul></ul>
  8. 15. Special Clouds <ul><li>Vertical Development- if cloud is warmer than surrounding air/ground, cloud will grow upwards  thunderstorm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulonimbus Cloud </li></ul></ul>
  9. 17. Precipitation <ul><li>Water droplets collide & join into larger droplets (coalescence)  too heavy to carry </li></ul><ul><li>Sleet (ice pellets) form when droplets are carried back up into the cloud, freezing it </li></ul><ul><li>Hail- layers and layer of sleet built up </li></ul>

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