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Atmosphere Lecture

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Transcript

  • 1. Atmosphere Chapter 11
  • 2. Structure of Atmosphere
    • Troposphere- closest to earth; contains most of mass of atmosphere; general decrease in temp (bottom  top)
    • Stratosphere- Second Layer
      • Contains Ozone Layer  absorbs ultraviolet radiation  heated layer
    • Mesosphere (middle)- temperature decreases
    • Thermosphere- few air molecules  temp rises to 1000 °C
    • Exosphere- Outer Layer; only H & He found here; no boundary between it and space
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. Solar Radiation p275
    • 6% Reflected by atmosphere
    • 25% Reflected by clouds
    • 4% Reflected by Earth’s surface
    • 15% Absorbed by atmosphere
    • 50% Absorbed by Earth’s surface
  • 6. Measuring the Atmosphere
    • Temperature- how fast molecules move around
      • Heat- transfer of energy
    • Dew Point- temp to which air must be cooled to be saturated (hold as much water as possible  condensation)
      • Air masses cool 10 °C for every 1000m in altitude
      • Clouds form when water reaches dew point
  • 7. Measurement– Cont’d
    • Wind- Cool air (more dense) sinks & forces warm (less dense) air upward
      • Air moves b/c earth is heated unevenly creating imbalances  High and Low pressure
    • Humidity- amount of water vapor in the air
      • Relative humidity (%)= (amt of water vapor)/(amt capable of holding)
  • 8. Clouds
    • Condensation Nuclei- small dirt particles in atmosphere that allow water to condense
    • Orographic lifting- at mountain air is forced up- causing water vapor to travel up (colder air) and reach its dew point  condensing
    • Collision of air masses- causes uplift of warm air and therefore condensation
  • 9. Types
    • Height
      • Cirro- above 6000m
      • Alto- 2000-6000m
      • Strato- below 2000m
    • Shape
      • Cirrus-”hair” wispy, stringy
      • Cumulus- “pile or heap” puffy, lumpy clouds
      • Stratus- “layer” sheets of clouds
      • Nimbus “cloud” low gray rain clouds
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15. Special Clouds
    • Vertical Development- if cloud is warmer than surrounding air/ground, cloud will grow upwards  thunderstorm
      • Cumulonimbus Cloud
  • 16.  
  • 17. Precipitation
    • Water droplets collide & join into larger droplets (coalescence)  too heavy to carry
    • Sleet (ice pellets) form when droplets are carried back up into the cloud, freezing it
    • Hail- layers and layer of sleet built up