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Presentation to the Polish Communication Association, Friday , September 23, 2011 ...

Presentation to the Polish Communication Association, Friday , September 23, 2011

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  • 1. Factors in Determining Online Success: Case Studies in the Campaign Use of the Internet Leslie M. Tkach-Kawasaki, Associate Professor University of Tsukuba Polish Communication Association “ Political Communication in the New Technology’s Era” September 22-23, 2011
  • 2. Overview
    • Introduction/Overview
    • What are the relevant factors that determine online success?
    • Scorecard: Online success factors and Japan
    • Mapping an evolutionary model for newly democratizing countries
    • Conclusion
  • 3. Factors for online success….
    • Online population
    • Party/candidate Internet use
    • Content – linking online and offline action
    • Campaign environment
  • 4. Factor 1: Online population Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications “Communications Usage Trend Survey” (2009)
  • 5.
    • Japanese political candidates online since 1995 (Upper House election period).
    • Japanese political parties online since 1996 (General election period).
    Factor 2: Candidate/Party Internet use New Party Sakigake website 1997 (Source: web.archive.org)
  • 6. Growth of Internet-based campaigning in Japan during Upper House elections (2001-2010)
  • 7. Candidates online in 2010 (Upper House election)   Candidate total With website/blog Web presence (%) 2010 Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) 106 104 98.1 Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) 84 83 98.8 New Komei Party 20 11 55.0 Japan Communist Party (JCP) 64 52 * 81.3 Social Democratic Party (SDP) 18 14 77.8 Your Party ( Minna-no to ) 44 44 100.0 People's New Party 9 6 66.7 Happiness Realization Party 5 5 100.0 Sunrise Party 13 13 100.0 Spirit of Japan Party 10 8 80.0 Women's Party 10 0 0 New Renaissance Party 12 12 ** 100.0 Independent candidates 18 5 27.8 Other small parties 26 23 88.5 Total 439 380 86.6
  • 8. Tani Hiroyuki website (2007)
  • 9. Tanaka Miyuki blog (2007) Tanaka Miyuki blog (2007)
  • 10. Goto Kazuhiko mobile website (2007)
  • 11. Japanese parties online 1996 Liberal Democratic Party’s first official website (1996 election)
  • 12. Japanese parties online 2009 Liberal Democratic Party website in 2009
  • 13. Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications “Survey of Social Media Usage” (2010) Factor 3: Content Social media use by Japanese Internet users as of 2009 Twitter
  • 14. Candidate web presence online: 2007 Upper House election Candidate party With web presence Website only Blog only Website and blog Website and mobile website Blog and mobile website Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) 76 (97%) 45 (59%) 1 (1%) 19 (25%) 19 (25%) 8 (11%) Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) 79 (99%) 36 (46%) 1 (1%) 30 (38%) 26 (33%) 14 (18%) New Komei Party 11 (100%) 2 (18%) 0 (0)% 8 (73%) 5 (45%) 4 (36%) Japan Communist Party (JCP) 31 (49%) 15 (48%) 6 (19%) 8 (26%) 7 (23%) 8 (26%) Social Democratic Party (SDP) 17 (68%) 10 (59%) 1 (6%) 6 (35%) 1 (6%) 2 (12%) People’s New Party 18 (86%) 6 (33%) 0 (0%) 9 (50%) 3 (17%) 1 (6%) Independent candidates 17 (77%) 5 (29%) 2 (12%) 7 (41%) 7 (41%) 4 (24%)
  • 15. Candidate Twitter use: 2010 Upper House election   Candidate total With website and/or blog Web presence (%) Twitter use (%) Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) 106 104 98.1 26 (25.0) Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) 84 83 98.8 35 (42.2) New Komei Party 20 11 55.0 11 (100.0) Japan Communist Party (JCP) 64 52 * 81.3 6 (11.5) Social Democratic Party (SDP) 18 14 77.8 4 (28.6) Your Party ( Minna-no to ) 44 44 100.0 30 (68.2) People's New Party 9 6 66.7 2 (33.3) Happiness Realization Party 5 5 100.0 4 (80.0) Sunrise Party 13 13 100.0 5 (38.5) Spirit of Japan Party 10 8 80.0 6 (75.0) Independent candidates 18 5 27.8 3 (60.0) Candidates from small parties 26 23 88.5 8 (34.8) Total 439 380 86.6 140 (36.8)
  • 16.
    • Defined as: The existence or non-existence of legislation relating to media use (in general) and/or Internet use (in specific)
    • No restrictions: U.S. and U.K.
    • Restrictions: Singapore, South Korea, and Japan
    Factor 4: Campaign environment
  • 17. Japan’s POEL (Public Office Election Law)
    • Origins in the Peace Preservation Law (1925) aimed at curtailing domestic political incidents.
    • Retained after the Occupation (1945 to 1949).
    • Amended to include candidates in 1950, aiming to control competitive campaign expenditures among candidates in Japan’s multimember electoral system.
    • Modified slightly in 1964 allowing political parties to advertise on television and radio.
    • Despite various parties introducing Bills since 1996 to amend the POEL to address the use of the Internet, no substantive changes have been made.
  • 18. What is the POEL?
    • The POEL legislates campaign-related activities of candidates and political parties as follows:
      • Timing of political activities and campaigning only within specified period directly prior to an election, known as the senkyo undo jiki (usually 12 to 14 days prior to an election) (Sect. 129)
      • The means by which candidates can advertise (format of texts and images to be used) (Sect. 142-3)
      • Number of official leaflets, postcards, and posters (Sect. 142-3)
      • Content (no direct appeals for votes) (Sect. 132)
      • Only official distribution channels (Sect. 142)
  • 19. Campaign time line Internet and the POEL Print/TV advertising/commercials, posters, rallies, etc. Websites, email, etc. No website updating, except for “ political education” news, no email (formally….) Websites, email, but no formal announcement of candidacy No website updates, no email (newsletters or otherwise) (as of 2009  no Twitter, Facebook, or Youtube) Permitted forms of campaigning only: Speeches, loudspeakers, public TV CM’s Political parties Candidates Dissolution (40-day period to election day) 12-14 days before election day (公示 ) (candidacies filed) Election day
  • 20. Timeline: Internet and the POEL in Japan 1995 Upper House election First use of websites by approx. 30-40 candidates 1996 General election New Party Sakigake challenges website use 2000 General election Creative interpretations of the POEL by parties and candidates 2001 Upper House election Experimentation: Email newsletters 2001-2002 “ Election Campaigning in the IT Age” Commission 2003 General election Party manifestos posted on websites 2004 Upper House election Mobile websites and email newsletters 2007 Upper House election Expansion to Youtube and self-produced media (continued as well in the 2009 General election) 2010 Upper House election Twitter use
  • 21. Scorecard: Japan and online success: Four-factor model Factor Success? Online population  Party/candidate Internet use  Content – linking online and offline action  Campaign environment  and 
  • 22. Mapping an evolving model of online success General Internet utilization Campaign environment (incl. media-use legislation) Party/candidate use of the Internet Voter use of the Internet
  • 23. Conclusion
    • Applying the four-factor model to newly democratizing countries – do these conditions exist?
    • Situating the political use of the Internet within the larger political environment in terms of media use and legislation.
    • Recognizing the necessity for chronological and comparative studies (both domestically and internationally).
  • 24. Thank you for listening. Leslie Tkach-Kawasaki University of Tsukuba Email: tkach@japan.email.ne.jp
  • 25. Supplementary materials
  • 26. 2009 Election Candidate Websites
  • 27. Candidates on the internet Upper House election 2010   Candidate total With website/blog Web presence (%) DPJ 106 104 98.1 LDP 84 83 98.8 New Komei 20 11 55.0 JCP 64 52 * 81.3 SDP 18 14 77.8 Your Party 44 44 100.0 People's New Party ( 国民新党) 9 6 66.7 Happiness Realization Party 5 5 100.0 Sunrise Party 13 13 100.0 Spirit of Japan Party ( 日本創新党 ) 10 8 80.0 Women's Party 10 0 0 New Renaissance Party ( 改革 ) 12 12 ** 100.0 Independents 18 5 27.8 Small parties 26 23 88.5 Total 439 380 86.6