Prompting Presentation with Questions
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  • Stimulus fading?
  • Matching: uses gestural prompt first, then moves on to manual for partial then full physicalFollow directions: uses model then manual

Prompting Presentation with Questions Prompting Presentation with Questions Presentation Transcript

  • Prompting
    Chase Callard
  • What is a prompt?
    A prompt is a supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response
    Prompts are used when the procedure materials or directions fail to evoke the desired response
    The prompt is not the discriminative stimulus (SD)
  • Why do we prompt?
    Used to bring about the desired response
    Works much faster than shaping
    Designed to help bring the desired behavior under the control of the SD
  • Prompt vs. SD
    The prompt is not an SD, though sometimes it may look similar to one
    E.g. the SD for imitation is a model of the desired response
    Clapping your hands so the child claps their hands
    But the SD for follow directions is a verbal statement
    Saying “clap hands” so the child claps their hands
    While the prompt is a model of clapping hands
    This is important to understand because procedures are meant to train different skills and the SDs and prompts are designed to promote those particular skills
  • Prompt vs. SD Follow Directions
    The SD, ‘clap hands,’ signals the availability of the reinforcer
    Only after hearing ‘clap hands’ will clapping hands result in a reinforcer
    The prompt helps the student respond correctly
    The child didn’t respond to the verbal SD
    So the tutor provides the model prompt of clapping hands and repeats the SD, ‘clap hands’
    Which the child imitates
  • Reinforcing prompted responses
    Prompted responses should be reinforced!
    Especially for new or difficult procedures
    Behavior only increases if it is followed by a reinforcing outcome
    Otherwise prompting serves no purpose
  • Types of prompts
    There are several different types of prompts:
    Physical/manual
    E.g. full and partial physical prompts
    Gestural
    E.g. tapping the correct sample stimulus
    Model
    E.g. performing the desired action
    Verbal
    E.g. telling your child to say, “Hi Kelly”
  • Types of prompts cont’d
    Many KAC procedures use multiple prompting strategies
    Especially gestural and physical
    E.g. Matching
    Or model and physical
    E.g. Follow directions
  • Prompting at KAC
    First look at the procedure!
    What does the procedure call for?
    It is very important to follow the prompting strategies provided by the procedure
    If you do not understand what the procedure calls for in terms of prompting, ask a supervisor!
    Most KAC procedures use least-to-most prompts
    I.e. the prompts become more and more intrusive
    E.g. matching uses a gestural, then partial physical, then full physical prompt
  • Prompting at KAC Cont’d.
    Gestural prompts:
    Involve pointing to or tapping the correct sample stimulus
    Physical prompts:
    Partial: Involves physically guiding the student’s body in an approximation of the response
    Usually done from the elbow
    Full: Involves physically guiding the student’s body through the entire response
    Usually done hand-over-hand
  • Prompting at KAC Cont’d.
    Model prompts:
    Involve the tutor modeling the desired response
    Verbal prompts:
    Involve some verbal stimulus presented by the tutor
    E.g. in a tacting procedure the SD is “What’s this?” and the verbal prompt is saying the correct answer
  • Prompt dependence
    Sometimes a child will begin to ‘rely’ on prompts
    Since reinforcement is contingent on even prompted responses
    Therefore it is important to look out for prompt dependence
    And start using prompt fading as soon as possible
  • Prompt fading
    Prompt fading serves two main purposes:
    To prevent the child from becoming prompt dependent
    And to bring the response under the control of the SD alone
    We may reduce how much assistance we give
    Delay the start of the prompt
    Or make independent responding more reinforcing than prompted responding
  • Quiz Time!
    What is a prompt?
     At the KAC, we reinforce prompted responses.
    True
    False
    Name two types of prompts. 
    We do prompt fading ________________.
    To prevent the child becoming prompt dependent.
    To reduce the amount of assistance we give.
    To bring the response under control of the Sd alone.
    All of the above
  • Questions?
    Comments?