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  • Supervisors use terms w/o checking to see if you guys know themWant you to understand how the terms apply to you at KAC
  • Example- what is descriptive praise- we don’t know that words are reinforcers. Want more opportunity to pair the “good” with edibles or other reinforcersBecause language is so important- hearing a bunch of extra words may distract them from paying attention to the words we want them to hear.Reinforcer can change often
  • Negative attention may seem aversive to you but it could be reinforcer for child. Attention as reinforcer
  • Some of these things may not seem like they are aversive to you. It is important to remember every child is different- what may function as a reinforcer may be extremely aversive to another.
  • Go over what the 4 basic contingencies are.- these are the 4 basic contingencies– explainRein- present rein
  • Some examples of stimuli- spoken words-
  • Add the two contingencies before this slide
  • Talk about structured play
  • KAC Children- ethanhija story- KAC tutor story- child wont eat at lunch so you say comforting words, then child takes bite and you start to comfort more- you think that your comforting words made response occure. Could talk about baseball players hitting home plate
  • Transcript

    • 1. Principles of Behavior (P.O.B.) Terms:
      What they mean to you
      At K.A.C.
      Emilia Knizner
      Western Michigan University
      10/24/10
    • 2. P.O.B. Terms at K.A.C.
      Why?
      We (supervisors) tend to use P.O.B. terms frequently without making sure everyone understands what we are saying.
      You may be familiar with the P.O.B. terms as they apply to the skinner box but we want you to understand how the terms apply to you at the K.A.C.
      If you already understand all of the terms, then this is a great review- Practice makes perfect.
    • 3. Reinforcer
      Any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of the response
    • 4. Reinforcer
      At K.A.C.
      Tangibles- dolls, play-doh, DVD, trains, animals, pencils
      Edibles- cookies, cake, fruit snacks, chips, m&m’s
      Social- Hugs, tickles, “good”
    • 5. Reinforcer
      At K.A.C.
      Important Things To Remember
      No Descriptive Praise- If you are giving social praise to a non-verbal child, it is best to keep it to “good”.
      Ex: “Good job putting your shoes on”
      Ex: “Good job matching same”
      Ex: “Good Job tracing line”
    • 6. Reinforcer
      At K.A.C.
      What may be aversive to you, could be functioning as a reinforcer for your child.
      Ex: Negative attention such as yelling, saying no!, mean nasty looks
      No attention throw something attention
      Reinforcers can change often. It is important to make sure that the reinforcer you are using is still functioning as a reinfocer.
    • 7. Aversive Condition
      Any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately following a response decreases the frequency of that response
    • 8. Aversive Condition
      At K.A.C.
      Procedure trials
      Eating lunch/snack
      Using the bathroom
      Over Correction
      Prompting (partial/full physical)
      Other children
      Some of these things may not seem like they would be aversive. We may even think they are reinforcing. But it is important to remember that every child is different and what may function as a reinforcer for one child, could be extremely aversive to another.
    • 9. Reinforcement-K.A.C.
      Reinforcement
      No chips
      Put bag in locker
      Chips
      Escape
      In booth
      Trace Line
      Not in booth
    • 10. Punishment- K.A.C.
      Punishment
      No “NO”
      Scream
      “NO”
      Penalty
      Bob DVD
      Scream
      No Bob DVD
    • 11. Extinction
      Result that occurs when the reinforcement or escape contingency for a previously reinforced response is stopped, causing the response frequency to decrease
    • 12. Extinction- Skinner Box
      Reinforcement
      No Water
      Press Lever
      Water
      Extinction
      No Water
      No Water
      Press Lever
    • 13. Extinction- K.A.C.
      Reinforcement
      No Attention
      Throw cup
      Attention
      Extinction
      No Attention
      Throw Cup
      No Attention
    • 14. Prompt- K.A.C.
      A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response.
      Type of Prompts: verbal, gestural, partial/full physical, visual, positional
    • 15. SD- Discriminative Stimulus
      A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished.
    • 16. SD-Discriminative StimulusSkinner Box
      SD
      Light On
      After
      Water
      Before
      No Water
      Behavior
      Press Lever
      After
      No Water
      Sdelta
      Light Off
    • 17. SD- Discriminative StimulusK.A.C.
      SD
      “Touch Cup”
      After
      Play-Doh
      Before
      No Play-Doh
      Behavior
      Touch Cup
      After
      No Play-Doh
      Sdelta
      “Touch Ball”
    • 18. Sick Social Cycle
      Victims Punishment Model
      The perpetrator’s aversive behavior punishes the victim’s appropriate behavior.
      And the victim’s stopping the appropriate behavior unintentionally reinforces that aversive behavior.
    • 19. Sick Social CycleVictims Punishment Model
      2 Contingencies
      Tutor: Punishment Contingency
      No aversive Cry
      Aversive Cry
      Give Demand
      Child: Escape Contingency
      Cry
      Demand Given
      No Demand Given
    • 20. Sick Social CycleVictims Punishment Model
      Tutor: Hears aversive disruption
      Child: Tantrum
      Tutor: Allow child to escape demand
      Child: Doesn’t hear aversive request
      Tutor: Gives Demand
      Child: Hears aversive demand
      Tutor: Doesn’t hear aversive tantrum
      Child: Does not disrupt
    • 21. Behavior Trap
      The process of adding a reinforcement contingency to increase the rate of behavior. Then the behavior will frequently contact built-in reinforcement contingencies, and those built-in contingencies will maintain that behavior
    • 22. Behavior Trap
      At K.A.C.- Structured Play
      Typical play may not be reinforcing for children with Autism. Often they don’t play with toys the way they were intended.
      Ex: Toy Car- put next to face and spin wheels
      We can use the behavior trap to get these kids playing appropriately with the toys at K.A.C.
      No M&MPush car up rampM&M
      No ticklesput food in microwavetickles
    • 23. Deprivation/Satiation
      Deprivation: Withholding a reinforcer to increase relevant learning and performance.
      Satiation:
      Consuming a substantial amount of a reinforcer temporarily decreases relevant learning and performance.
      These two principles explain why we:
      Keep the time with the reinforcer short
      Give tiny portions of edible reinforcers
    • 24. Superstitious Behavior
      Behaving as if the response causes some specific outcome, when it really does not.
    • 25. Superstitious Behavior
      K.A.C. Children
      Unprompted Eye Contact- Tutor would close DVD and wait for eye contact. The child makes eye contact and says “Hija” at same time. Tutor reinforces eye contact. Child begins to say “Hija” frequently.
      K.A.C. TuTOR
      At Lunch- Child won’t eat food. The tutor starts talking to the child trying to comfort “ohh…it’s ok”, “It’s almost over”. The child takes a bite of food. The tutor begins to comfort child more frequently.
    • 26. Rule to Live By
      REINFORCE BEHAVIOR
      NOT
      PEOPLE
      Don’t Say: I reinforced Suzy with the Play-Doh
      Do Say: I reinforced Suzy’s imitation behavior with Play-Doh
    • 27. Rule to Live ByDon’t Say Rule
      With any nonverbal organisms
      Don’t Say:
      Expects
      Knows
      Thinks
      Figures out
      In order to
      Tries To
      Makes the connection
      Associates
      Learns that
      Imagines
      Understands
      With Any Organisms
      Don’t Say:
      Wants
    • 28. THANK YOU
      Questions? Comments?

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