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  • Supervisors use terms w/o checking to see if you guys know themWant you to understand how the terms apply to you at KAC
  • Example- what is descriptive praise- we don’t know that words are reinforcers. Want more opportunity to pair the “good” with edibles or other reinforcersBecause language is so important- hearing a bunch of extra words may distract them from paying attention to the words we want them to hear.Reinforcer can change often
  • Negative attention may seem aversive to you but it could be reinforcer for child. Attention as reinforcer
  • Some of these things may not seem like they are aversive to you. It is important to remember every child is different- what may function as a reinforcer may be extremely aversive to another.
  • Go over what the 4 basic contingencies are.- these are the 4 basic contingencies– explainRein- present rein
  • Some examples of stimuli- spoken words-
  • Add the two contingencies before this slide
  • Talk about structured play
  • KAC Children- ethanhija story- KAC tutor story- child wont eat at lunch so you say comforting words, then child takes bite and you start to comfort more- you think that your comforting words made response occure. Could talk about baseball players hitting home plate
  • Transcript

    • 1. Principles of Behavior (P.O.B.) Terms:<br />What they mean to you <br />At K.A.C.<br />Emilia Knizner<br />Western Michigan University<br />10/24/10<br />
    • 2. P.O.B. Terms at K.A.C.<br />Why?<br />We (supervisors) tend to use P.O.B. terms frequently without making sure everyone understands what we are saying.<br />You may be familiar with the P.O.B. terms as they apply to the skinner box but we want you to understand how the terms apply to you at the K.A.C.<br />If you already understand all of the terms, then this is a great review- Practice makes perfect.<br />
    • 3. Reinforcer<br />Any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of the response<br />
    • 4. Reinforcer<br />At K.A.C.<br />Tangibles- dolls, play-doh, DVD, trains, animals, pencils<br />Edibles- cookies, cake, fruit snacks, chips, m&m’s<br />Social- Hugs, tickles, “good”<br />
    • 5. Reinforcer<br />At K.A.C.<br />Important Things To Remember<br />No Descriptive Praise- If you are giving social praise to a non-verbal child, it is best to keep it to “good”.<br /> Ex: “Good job putting your shoes on” <br /> Ex: “Good job matching same”<br /> Ex: “Good Job tracing line”<br />
    • 6. Reinforcer<br />At K.A.C.<br />What may be aversive to you, could be functioning as a reinforcer for your child.<br /> Ex: Negative attention such as yelling, saying no!, mean nasty looks<br />No attention throw something attention<br />Reinforcers can change often. It is important to make sure that the reinforcer you are using is still functioning as a reinfocer.<br />
    • 7. Aversive Condition<br />Any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately following a response decreases the frequency of that response<br />
    • 8. Aversive Condition<br />At K.A.C.<br />Procedure trials<br />Eating lunch/snack <br />Using the bathroom<br />Over Correction<br />Prompting (partial/full physical)<br />Other children<br />Some of these things may not seem like they would be aversive. We may even think they are reinforcing. But it is important to remember that every child is different and what may function as a reinforcer for one child, could be extremely aversive to another.<br />
    • 9. Reinforcement-K.A.C.<br />Reinforcement<br />No chips<br />Put bag in locker<br />Chips<br />Escape<br />In booth<br />Trace Line<br />Not in booth<br />
    • 10. Punishment- K.A.C.<br />Punishment<br />No “NO”<br />Scream<br />“NO”<br />Penalty<br />Bob DVD<br />Scream<br />No Bob DVD<br />
    • 11. Extinction<br />Result that occurs when the reinforcement or escape contingency for a previously reinforced response is stopped, causing the response frequency to decrease<br />
    • 12. Extinction- Skinner Box<br />Reinforcement<br />No Water<br />Press Lever<br />Water<br />Extinction<br />No Water<br />No Water<br />Press Lever<br />
    • 13. Extinction- K.A.C.<br />Reinforcement<br />No Attention<br />Throw cup<br />Attention<br />Extinction<br />No Attention<br />Throw Cup<br />No Attention<br />
    • 14. Prompt- K.A.C.<br />A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response.<br />Type of Prompts: verbal, gestural, partial/full physical, visual, positional <br />
    • 15. SD- Discriminative Stimulus<br />A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished.<br />
    • 16. SD-Discriminative StimulusSkinner Box<br />SD<br />Light On<br />After<br />Water<br />Before<br />No Water<br />Behavior<br />Press Lever<br />After<br />No Water<br />Sdelta<br />Light Off<br />
    • 17. SD- Discriminative StimulusK.A.C.<br />SD<br />“Touch Cup”<br />After<br />Play-Doh<br />Before<br />No Play-Doh<br />Behavior<br />Touch Cup<br />After<br />No Play-Doh<br />Sdelta<br />“Touch Ball”<br />
    • 18. Sick Social Cycle<br />Victims Punishment Model<br />The perpetrator’s aversive behavior punishes the victim’s appropriate behavior. <br />And the victim’s stopping the appropriate behavior unintentionally reinforces that aversive behavior.<br />
    • 19. Sick Social CycleVictims Punishment Model<br />2 Contingencies<br />Tutor: Punishment Contingency<br />No aversive Cry<br />Aversive Cry<br />Give Demand<br />Child: Escape Contingency<br />Cry<br />Demand Given<br />No Demand Given<br />
    • 20. Sick Social CycleVictims Punishment Model<br />Tutor: Hears aversive disruption<br />Child: Tantrum<br />Tutor: Allow child to escape demand<br />Child: Doesn’t hear aversive request<br />Tutor: Gives Demand<br />Child: Hears aversive demand<br />Tutor: Doesn’t hear aversive tantrum<br />Child: Does not disrupt<br />
    • 21. Behavior Trap<br />The process of adding a reinforcement contingency to increase the rate of behavior. Then the behavior will frequently contact built-in reinforcement contingencies, and those built-in contingencies will maintain that behavior<br />
    • 22. Behavior Trap<br />At K.A.C.- Structured Play<br />Typical play may not be reinforcing for children with Autism. Often they don’t play with toys the way they were intended.<br /> Ex: Toy Car- put next to face and spin wheels<br />We can use the behavior trap to get these kids playing appropriately with the toys at K.A.C.<br />No M&MPush car up rampM&M<br />No ticklesput food in microwavetickles<br />
    • 23. Deprivation/Satiation<br />Deprivation: Withholding a reinforcer to increase relevant learning and performance.<br />Satiation: <br />Consuming a substantial amount of a reinforcer temporarily decreases relevant learning and performance.<br />These two principles explain why we:<br />Keep the time with the reinforcer short<br />Give tiny portions of edible reinforcers<br />
    • 24. Superstitious Behavior<br />Behaving as if the response causes some specific outcome, when it really does not.<br />
    • 25. Superstitious Behavior<br />K.A.C. Children<br />Unprompted Eye Contact- Tutor would close DVD and wait for eye contact. The child makes eye contact and says “Hija” at same time. Tutor reinforces eye contact. Child begins to say “Hija” frequently.<br />K.A.C. TuTOR<br />At Lunch- Child won’t eat food. The tutor starts talking to the child trying to comfort “ohh…it’s ok”, “It’s almost over”. The child takes a bite of food. The tutor begins to comfort child more frequently.<br />
    • 26. Rule to Live By<br />REINFORCE BEHAVIOR<br />NOT<br />PEOPLE<br />Don’t Say: I reinforced Suzy with the Play-Doh<br />Do Say: I reinforced Suzy’s imitation behavior with Play-Doh<br />
    • 27. Rule to Live ByDon’t Say Rule<br />With any nonverbal organisms<br />Don’t Say:<br />Expects<br />Knows<br />Thinks<br />Figures out<br />In order to<br />Tries To<br />Makes the connection<br />Associates<br />Learns that<br />Imagines<br />Understands<br />With Any Organisms<br />Don’t Say:<br />Wants<br />
    • 28. THANK YOU<br />Questions? Comments?<br />

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