Principles of Behavior (P.O.B.) Terms: What they mean to you At K.A.C. Emilia Knizner Western Michigan University 10/24/10
P.O.B. Terms at K.A.C. Why? We (supervisors) tend to use P.O.B. terms frequently without making sure everyone understands what we are saying. You may be familiar with the P.O.B. terms as they apply to the skinner box but we want you to understand how the terms apply to you at the K.A.C. If you already understand all of the terms, then this is a great review- Practice makes perfect.
Reinforcer Any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of the response
Reinforcer At K.A.C. Important Things To Remember No Descriptive Praise- If you are giving social praise to a non-verbal child, it is best to keep it to “good”. Ex: “Good job putting your shoes on” Ex: “Good job matching same” Ex: “Good Job tracing line”
Reinforcer At K.A.C. What may be aversive to you, could be functioning as a reinforcer for your child. Ex: Negative attention such as yelling, saying no!, mean nasty looks No attention throw something attention Reinforcers can change often. It is important to make sure that the reinforcer you are using is still functioning as a reinfocer.
Aversive Condition Any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately following a response decreases the frequency of that response
Aversive Condition At K.A.C. Procedure trials Eating lunch/snack Using the bathroom Over Correction Prompting (partial/full physical) Other children Some of these things may not seem like they would be aversive. We may even think they are reinforcing. But it is important to remember that every child is different and what may function as a reinforcer for one child, could be extremely aversive to another.
Reinforcement-K.A.C. Reinforcement No chips Put bag in locker Chips Escape In booth Trace Line Not in booth
Punishment- K.A.C. Punishment No “NO” Scream “NO” Penalty Bob DVD Scream No Bob DVD
Extinction Result that occurs when the reinforcement or escape contingency for a previously reinforced response is stopped, causing the response frequency to decrease
Extinction- Skinner Box Reinforcement No Water Press Lever Water Extinction No Water No Water Press Lever
Extinction- K.A.C. Reinforcement No Attention Throw cup Attention Extinction No Attention Throw Cup No Attention
Prompt- K.A.C. A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response. Type of Prompts: verbal, gestural, partial/full physical, visual, positional
SD- Discriminative Stimulus A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished.
SD-Discriminative StimulusSkinner Box SD Light On After Water Before No Water Behavior Press Lever After No Water Sdelta Light Off
SD- Discriminative StimulusK.A.C. SD “Touch Cup” After Play-Doh Before No Play-Doh Behavior Touch Cup After No Play-Doh Sdelta “Touch Ball”
Sick Social Cycle Victims Punishment Model The perpetrator’s aversive behavior punishes the victim’s appropriate behavior. And the victim’s stopping the appropriate behavior unintentionally reinforces that aversive behavior.
Sick Social CycleVictims Punishment Model 2 Contingencies Tutor: Punishment Contingency No aversive Cry Aversive Cry Give Demand Child: Escape Contingency Cry Demand Given No Demand Given
Sick Social CycleVictims Punishment Model Tutor: Hears aversive disruption Child: Tantrum Tutor: Allow child to escape demand Child: Doesn’t hear aversive request Tutor: Gives Demand Child: Hears aversive demand Tutor: Doesn’t hear aversive tantrum Child: Does not disrupt
Behavior Trap The process of adding a reinforcement contingency to increase the rate of behavior. Then the behavior will frequently contact built-in reinforcement contingencies, and those built-in contingencies will maintain that behavior
Behavior Trap At K.A.C.- Structured Play Typical play may not be reinforcing for children with Autism. Often they don’t play with toys the way they were intended. Ex: Toy Car- put next to face and spin wheels We can use the behavior trap to get these kids playing appropriately with the toys at K.A.C. No M&MPush car up rampM&M No ticklesput food in microwavetickles
Deprivation/Satiation Deprivation: Withholding a reinforcer to increase relevant learning and performance. Satiation: Consuming a substantial amount of a reinforcer temporarily decreases relevant learning and performance. These two principles explain why we: Keep the time with the reinforcer short Give tiny portions of edible reinforcers
Superstitious Behavior Behaving as if the response causes some specific outcome, when it really does not.
Superstitious Behavior K.A.C. Children Unprompted Eye Contact- Tutor would close DVD and wait for eye contact. The child makes eye contact and says “Hija” at same time. Tutor reinforces eye contact. Child begins to say “Hija” frequently. K.A.C. TuTOR At Lunch- Child won’t eat food. The tutor starts talking to the child trying to comfort “ohh…it’s ok”, “It’s almost over”. The child takes a bite of food. The tutor begins to comfort child more frequently.
Rule to Live By REINFORCE BEHAVIOR NOT PEOPLE Don’t Say: I reinforced Suzy with the Play-Doh Do Say: I reinforced Suzy’s imitation behavior with Play-Doh
Rule to Live ByDon’t Say Rule With any nonverbal organisms Don’t Say: Expects Knows Thinks Figures out In order to Tries To Makes the connection Associates Learns that Imagines Understands With Any Organisms Don’t Say: Wants