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  • Supervisors use terms w/o checking to see if you guys know themWant you to understand how the terms apply to you at KAC
  • Example- what is descriptive praise- we don’t know that words are reinforcers. Want more opportunity to pair the “good” with edibles or other reinforcersBecause language is so important- hearing a bunch of extra words may distract them from paying attention to the words we want them to hear.Reinforcer can change often
  • Negative attention may seem aversive to you but it could be reinforcer for child. Attention as reinforcer
  • Some of these things may not seem like they are aversive to you. It is important to remember every child is different- what may function as a reinforcer may be extremely aversive to another.
  • Go over what the 4 basic contingencies are.- these are the 4 basic contingencies– explainRein- present rein
  • Some examples of stimuli- spoken words-
  • Add the two contingencies before this slide
  • Talk about structured play
  • KAC Children- ethanhija story- KAC tutor story- child wont eat at lunch so you say comforting words, then child takes bite and you start to comfort more- you think that your comforting words made response occure. Could talk about baseball players hitting home plate


  • 1. Principles of Behavior (P.O.B.) Terms:
    What they mean to you
    At K.A.C.
    Emilia Knizner
    Western Michigan University
  • 2. P.O.B. Terms at K.A.C.
    We (supervisors) tend to use P.O.B. terms frequently without making sure everyone understands what we are saying.
    You may be familiar with the P.O.B. terms as they apply to the skinner box but we want you to understand how the terms apply to you at the K.A.C.
    If you already understand all of the terms, then this is a great review- Practice makes perfect.
  • 3. Reinforcer
    Any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of the response
  • 4. Reinforcer
    At K.A.C.
    Tangibles- dolls, play-doh, DVD, trains, animals, pencils
    Edibles- cookies, cake, fruit snacks, chips, m&m’s
    Social- Hugs, tickles, “good”
  • 5. Reinforcer
    At K.A.C.
    Important Things To Remember
    No Descriptive Praise- If you are giving social praise to a non-verbal child, it is best to keep it to “good”.
    Ex: “Good job putting your shoes on”
    Ex: “Good job matching same”
    Ex: “Good Job tracing line”
  • 6. Reinforcer
    At K.A.C.
    What may be aversive to you, could be functioning as a reinforcer for your child.
    Ex: Negative attention such as yelling, saying no!, mean nasty looks
    No attention throw something attention
    Reinforcers can change often. It is important to make sure that the reinforcer you are using is still functioning as a reinfocer.
  • 7. Aversive Condition
    Any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately following a response decreases the frequency of that response
  • 8. Aversive Condition
    At K.A.C.
    Procedure trials
    Eating lunch/snack
    Using the bathroom
    Over Correction
    Prompting (partial/full physical)
    Other children
    Some of these things may not seem like they would be aversive. We may even think they are reinforcing. But it is important to remember that every child is different and what may function as a reinforcer for one child, could be extremely aversive to another.
  • 9. Reinforcement-K.A.C.
    No chips
    Put bag in locker
    In booth
    Trace Line
    Not in booth
  • 10. Punishment- K.A.C.
    No “NO”
    Bob DVD
    No Bob DVD
  • 11. Extinction
    Result that occurs when the reinforcement or escape contingency for a previously reinforced response is stopped, causing the response frequency to decrease
  • 12. Extinction- Skinner Box
    No Water
    Press Lever
    No Water
    No Water
    Press Lever
  • 13. Extinction- K.A.C.
    No Attention
    Throw cup
    No Attention
    Throw Cup
    No Attention
  • 14. Prompt- K.A.C.
    A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response.
    Type of Prompts: verbal, gestural, partial/full physical, visual, positional
  • 15. SD- Discriminative Stimulus
    A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished.
  • 16. SD-Discriminative StimulusSkinner Box
    Light On
    No Water
    Press Lever
    No Water
    Light Off
  • 17. SD- Discriminative StimulusK.A.C.
    “Touch Cup”
    No Play-Doh
    Touch Cup
    No Play-Doh
    “Touch Ball”
  • 18. Sick Social Cycle
    Victims Punishment Model
    The perpetrator’s aversive behavior punishes the victim’s appropriate behavior.
    And the victim’s stopping the appropriate behavior unintentionally reinforces that aversive behavior.
  • 19. Sick Social CycleVictims Punishment Model
    2 Contingencies
    Tutor: Punishment Contingency
    No aversive Cry
    Aversive Cry
    Give Demand
    Child: Escape Contingency
    Demand Given
    No Demand Given
  • 20. Sick Social CycleVictims Punishment Model
    Tutor: Hears aversive disruption
    Child: Tantrum
    Tutor: Allow child to escape demand
    Child: Doesn’t hear aversive request
    Tutor: Gives Demand
    Child: Hears aversive demand
    Tutor: Doesn’t hear aversive tantrum
    Child: Does not disrupt
  • 21. Behavior Trap
    The process of adding a reinforcement contingency to increase the rate of behavior. Then the behavior will frequently contact built-in reinforcement contingencies, and those built-in contingencies will maintain that behavior
  • 22. Behavior Trap
    At K.A.C.- Structured Play
    Typical play may not be reinforcing for children with Autism. Often they don’t play with toys the way they were intended.
    Ex: Toy Car- put next to face and spin wheels
    We can use the behavior trap to get these kids playing appropriately with the toys at K.A.C.
    No M&MPush car up rampM&M
    No ticklesput food in microwavetickles
  • 23. Deprivation/Satiation
    Deprivation: Withholding a reinforcer to increase relevant learning and performance.
    Consuming a substantial amount of a reinforcer temporarily decreases relevant learning and performance.
    These two principles explain why we:
    Keep the time with the reinforcer short
    Give tiny portions of edible reinforcers
  • 24. Superstitious Behavior
    Behaving as if the response causes some specific outcome, when it really does not.
  • 25. Superstitious Behavior
    K.A.C. Children
    Unprompted Eye Contact- Tutor would close DVD and wait for eye contact. The child makes eye contact and says “Hija” at same time. Tutor reinforces eye contact. Child begins to say “Hija” frequently.
    K.A.C. TuTOR
    At Lunch- Child won’t eat food. The tutor starts talking to the child trying to comfort “ohh…it’s ok”, “It’s almost over”. The child takes a bite of food. The tutor begins to comfort child more frequently.
  • 26. Rule to Live By
    Don’t Say: I reinforced Suzy with the Play-Doh
    Do Say: I reinforced Suzy’s imitation behavior with Play-Doh
  • 27. Rule to Live ByDon’t Say Rule
    With any nonverbal organisms
    Don’t Say:
    Figures out
    In order to
    Tries To
    Makes the connection
    Learns that
    With Any Organisms
    Don’t Say:
  • 28. THANK YOU
    Questions? Comments?