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T 1b Theorists Defs
 

T 1b Theorists Defs

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    T 1b Theorists Defs T 1b Theorists Defs Document Transcript

    • Theorists Definitions of ‘Culture’ Definitions of ‘Culture’ 1. [Culture is] “The shared system of symbolic knowledge and patterns of behaviour, derived from speech communication, that human individuals carry to provide predictable internal and external psychological stability so as to prevent chaos among human individuals. We learn cultural codes for social life, role expectations, common definitions of situations, and social norms in order to provide predictability and survival of the human species. Human language (spoken and written) is the symbolic ‘glue’ of human culture.” Aldridge M G. (2002). What is the basis of Human Culture. Intercultural Communication http://www.immi.se/intercultural/. [Cited Wall, S & Rees, B. Introduction to International Business./ FT Prentice Hall.] 2. “We can liken it [culture] to the air: it is everywhere, we cannot see it, but we know it is there, we breathe it and we cannot exist without it. Culture is not a biological necessity and we will not die if we are deprived of it. But it is rather improbable, if not impossible for a person to be devoid of the traces of his or her cultural upbringing and separated from his or her cultural context.” Tyab, M. (2000). International Business: Theories, Policies & Practices. FT/Prentice Hall. [Cited Wall, S & Rees, B. Introduction to International Business. FT Prentice Hall.] 3. “[Culture]…denotes an historically transmitted pattern of meaning embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate their knowledge about and attitudes toward life.” Geertz, C. (1973) Pg 89. The Interpretation of Culture. Basic Books New Yk. [Cited: Martin, J N & Nakayama, TK (2003) Intercultural Communication in Contexts. McGraw & Hill.] http://www.mhhe.com/martinnakayama/ 4. “Every person carries within him or herself patterns of thinking, feeling, and potential acting which were learned throughout his or her lifetime. Much of these patterns are acquired in early childhood, because at that time a person is most susceptible to learning and assimilating.” Hofstede, G. (1997) Pg 4. Cultures & Organisations: software of the Mind. [Revised Edn] Mc Graw Hill New Yk. [Cited: Martin, J N & Nakayama, TK (2003) Intercultural Communication in Contexts. McGraw & Hill.]
    • 5. “Culture is defined as a pattern of learned, group-related perception – including both verbal and non-verbal language attitudes, values, belief system, disbelief systems and behaviour.” Singer, MR (1987) Pg 34. Intercultural Communication: A Perceptual Approach. Prentice Hall. [Cited: Martin, J N & Nakayama, TK (2003) Intercultural Communication in Contexts. McGraw & Hill.] 6. “Culture … refers to a socially constructed and historically transmitted pattern of symbols, meaning, premises and rules.” Philipsen, G (1992) Pg 7. Speaking Culturally: Explorations in Social Communication. State University of New Yk Press. 7. [Corporate Culture]…” is the pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented, discovered or developed in learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. These have worked well enough to be considered valid, and are therefore taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems.” Schein, EH. (1984) Coming to a new Awareness of Organisation Culture. Sloan Management Review. Winter Issue. [Cited: Jacob, N. (2003) Intercultural Management. Kogan Page. London.] 8. “The core of culture is composed of explicit and tacit assumptions or understandings commonly held by a group of people; a particular configuration of assumptions/ understandings is distinctive to the group; these assumptions / understandings serve as guides to acceptable and unacceptable perceptions, thoughts, feelings and behaviours; they are learned and passed on to new members of the group through social interaction; culture is dynamic – it changes over time.” Boyacigiller NA et al. (2003) Conceptualising Culture – elucidating the Streams of Research in International Cross-Cultural Management. In : Handbook for International Management Research. (2003) 2nd Ed. Univ of Michigan Press. [Cited: Martin, J N & Nakayama, TK (2003) Intercultural Communication in Contexts. McGraw & Hill.] 9 [Culture is]… “ That complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities or habits acquired by a person as a member of society.” Tylor (1871) [Cited: Lewis, H. Bournemouth University Lecture 2005 (Unpublished) ] 10 [Culture is] … “A way of life of a group of people…. The patterns of learned behaviour which are handed down from one generation to the next through the means of language and imitation.” Barnouw (1963) [Cited: Lewis, H. Bournemouth University Lecture 2005 (Unpublished)