1. Brundtland (1987) World Commission on Environment & Development:
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the
needs of future generations to meet their own needs.
2. Harwood (1990):
A system that can evolve indefinitely toward greater human utility, greater efficiency of resource use
and a balance with the environment which is which is favourable to humans and most other species.
3. Pearce, Makandia & Barbier (1989)
Sustainable development involves devising a social and economic system, which ensures that these
goals are sustained, i.e. that real incomes rise, that educational standards increase, that the health of the
nation improves, that the general quality of life is advanced.
4. Daly (1991)
Lack of a precise definition of the term 'sustainable development' is not all bad. It has allowed a
considerable consensus to evolve in support of the idea that it is both morally and economically wrong
to treat the world as a business in liquidation.
5. IUCN, UNEP, WWF (1991):
Sustainable development, sustainable growth, and sustainable use have been used interchangeably, as if
their meanings were the same. They are not. Sustainable growth is a contradiction in terms: nothing
physical can grow indefinitely. Sustainable use, is only applicable to renewable resources. Sustainable
development is used in this strategy to mean: improving the quality of human life whilst living within
the carrying capacity of the ecosystems.
6. Holdgate (1993):
Development is about realising resource potential, Sustainable development of renewable natural
resources implies respecting limits to the development process, even though these limits are adjustable
7. Pearce (1993):
Sustainable development is concerned with the development of a society where the costs of
development are not transferred to future generations, or at least an attempt is made to compensate for
8. HMSO (1994):
Most societies want to achieve economic development to secure higher standards of living, now and
for future generations. They also seek to protect and enhance their environment, now and for their
children. Sustainable development tries to reconcile these two objectives.
1-8 are abridged from Univ of Reading Agriculture, Policy and Development
website at: http://www.ecifm.rdg.ac.uk/definitions.htm
9. CN/UNEP/WWF. "
Improving the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting eco-
IUCN/UNEP/WWF. Caring for the Earth: A Strategy for Sustainable Living. (Gland, Switzerland:
10. Friends of the Earth Scotland
"Sustainability encompasses the simple principle of taking from the earth only what it
can provide indefinitely, thus leaving future generations no less than we have access
11. The Thomas Jefferson Sustainability Council
"Sustainability may be described as our responsibility to proceed in a way that will sustain life
that will allow our children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren to live comfortably in a
friendly, clean, and healthy world . that people:
Take responsibility for life in all its forms as well as respect human work and aspirations;
Respect individual rights and community responsibilities;
Recognize social, environmental, economic, and political systems to be inter-dependent;
Weigh costs and benefits of decisions fully, including long-term costs and benefits to
Acknowledge that resources are finite and that there are limits to growth;
Assume control of their destinies;
Recognize that our ability to see the needs of the future is limited, and any attempt to
define sustainability should remain as open and flexible as possible.
12. World Business Council on Sustainable Development
"Sustainable development involves the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity,
environmental quality and social equity. Companies aiming for sustainability need to perform not
against a single, financial bottom line but against the triple bottom line."
"Over time, human and social values change. Concepts that once seemed extraordinary (e.g.
emancipating slaves, enfranchising women) are now taken for granted. New concepts (e.g.
responsible consumerism, environmental justice, intra- and inter-generational equity) are now
coming up the curve." http://www.wbcsd.ch/
A system of long term planning which is friendly towards the long-term well being of communities
and habitats, the visitor and the tourism industry....The sustainability concept gives power and
knowledge in equal amounts to each party resulting in the careful, slow optimisation of each
Meeting the needs of the present tourists and host regions whilst protecting and enhancing
opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way
thateconomic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity,
essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems.
A triangular relationship between host areas and their habitats and peoples, holidaymakers and the
tourism industry. In the past the tourism industry has dominated the triangle. STm aims to
reconcile the tensions between the three partners in the triangle and to keep the equilibrium in
the long term. STm also aims to minimise environmental and cultural damage, optimise visitor
satisfaction and maximise long term economic growthfor the region. It is a way of obtaining a
balance between the growth potential of tourism and the conservation needs of the environment.
A sustainable strategy for leisure (inc Tm) involves :
• maintaining the quality of the environment in which leisure takes place for future
• contributing to the health, well-being and quality of life of theose taking part in leisure
activities without destroying the natural resources upon which leisure depends
• ensuring that leisure activities are a major means of creating awareness of and appreciation
for the environment
Simply stated, sustainability implies that you don't kill the goose that lays the golden egg. If
benefits are to be maintained over the long term, the activities need to be sustainable over a long
period. This is only possible if the resource, be it man made, natural or cultural can be maintained
over time. Exploitation for the short term is a cul de sac which is to no-one's benefit. Inherant in this
view is the concept of trusteeship, the idea that...wehave not inherited the earth from our
parents, but borrowed it from our children. We are looking to achieve a situation which can
be maintained without depleting the resource, cheating the visitor or exploiting the local