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Reformation and religious wars

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A history of the Protestant Reformation and the Counterreformation

A history of the Protestant Reformation and the Counterreformation

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  • 1. Reformation and Religious Wars Protestantism and Inquisition
  • 2. Warm Up
    • What problems was the Catholic Church facing before & during the Renaissance?
  • 3. Northern Christian Humanism
    • Turned to the Greeks and Romans for more information concerning religion
    • Erasmus wanted to restore Christianity to simplicity and a return to biblical study
    • Thomas Moore used his studies to try to improve the state
    • In his book Utopia, More describes a society without corruption or fame: people work only for what they need
  • 4. Causes of the Reformation
    • Papal Leadership
    • Catholic Wealth
    • Indulgences and Relics
    • Heresy vs. Reform
  • 5. Papal Leadership
    • Failure of Renaissance popes to provide leadership
    • Corruption and secular power of Popes
    • Pope’s primary concern was with raising money
      • New churches (St. Peters Basilica)
      • Supporting the large Catholic bureaucracy
  • 6. St. Peters Basilica
  • 7. Rome from the Top of St. Peters
  • 8. Inside St. Peters Basilica
  • 9. Pluralism and Absenteeism
    • One clergyman held more than one position (priest, monk, bishop, archbishop, cardinal, etc)
      • Needed more than one job obtained to increase revenue
      • Positions often held by already rich nobles
    • Sometimes the clergy ignored their positions and hired other, less qualified underlings to do job for them
  • 10. Indulgences and Relics
    • Indulgences were basically passes into heaven for one’s self or family member
      • No biblical basis; fundraising alone
    • Prince Fredrick of Saxony had 19,000 relics whose combined might could relieve one of 2 million years in purgatory simply by paying to visit them
      • Relics were fake more often than not, but since the church backed them, they were perceived as real.
  • 11. Heresy vs. Reform
    • People were searching for meaningful religious expression and certainty of salvation
    • Many, especially among laymen, were looking for leadership, but found only power hungry clerics
    • All Reformers were sure of the certainty and perfection of the Catholic Church, at first…
    • Any challenge to the canon, beliefs, and supremacy of the Catholic Church was seen as heresy
      • they could not be wrong as God’s representatives on Earth
  • 12. Martin Luther
    • Originally Lawyer
    • Became monk after near death
    • experience
    • Luther’s primary concern: What must I do to be saved?
    • Luther was a professor of theology in Wittenburg
      • Came to a conclusion by teaching and studying the Bible
      • Believed that man needed faith alone to be saved because Christ died for the salvation of mankind
      • Catholics emphasized that certain actions on earth must also be completed
  • 13. Luther was a Catholic Monk!
    • He was not interested in starting a new religion
    • He wanted to help fix the problems that he saw in the Catholic Church
    • Cast out as a heretic for challenging beliefs over indulgences
    • Religion spread in part due to backing by German princes such as Saxony’s Prince Fredrick
    • Lutheranism appealed to German princes
      • Catholic land
      • No control from outside sources
    • Lutheranism also spread to Northern Europe as well
  • 14. Luther’s Focus on Reform
    • All religious practices (including sacraments) must be biblically based
    • All religious laws must be biblically based
    • Salvation through faith alone
    • Priesthood is there for guidance, not dictatorship
    • Church should not concern itself with amassing wealth
  • 15. Other Protestant Movements
    • Zwinglianism
    • Anabaptists
    • Anglicanism
    • Calvinism
  • 16. Zwinglianism
    • Ulrich Zwingli was a Swiss born son of a wealthy peasant
    • He set the ground works for Calvin
    • He started preaching the Gospel in 1518
    • Began the disputation , or town hall, method for deciding religious matters
      • Generally favored Protestants
    • Ideology:
      • Looked to the State for leadership
      • Forbade any images or music; took away from scripture
      • Abolished monasteries, pilgrimages, saints, celibacy, and the pope’s authority
    • Unable to ally with Luther b/c of differences over communion
  • 17. Anabaptism
    • The most radical form of Protestantism
      • usually favored by peasants and artisans
      • Conglomeration of different groups with similar beliefs
    • Ideology:
      • Adult vs. Infant baptism: no choice
      • All believers equal: democracy
      • Ministers appointed by vote
      • Simple Christian living of early Christians
      • Complete separation of church and state
      • Most are pacifists
    • In 1530s, violent millenarian Anabaptists take control of Munster in Westphalia
    • John of Leiden (right) took control of the now communal city as its king
      • Prince of Westphalia massacred Anabaptists with a large army
    Today, Anabaptists are known as the Amish and the Mennonites
  • 18. Anabaptist Leaders Executed
  • 19. Calvinism
    • John Calvin (1509-1564) was a scholar of humanism and law before conversion to Protestantism
    • Originally from Paris, he eventually migrated to Geneva, Switzerland
    • Ideology:
    • Salvation through faith alone
    • Absolute sovereignty of God
    • Predestination
      • The “elect” vs “probate”
    • Militant international Protestant
    • Importance of Scripture and 2 sacraments
    • Jesus present in spirit during communion
    • Future Calvinists:
      • Puritans
      • Presbyterians
  • 20. Religious Wars
    • Very little unity between Protestant churches
      • They become separated and easily defeatable
    • Schmalkaldic Wars
      • Charles V vs. Lutheran Princes
        • Survives due to alliance with French Catholic Henry II
      • Peace of Augsburg
    • Zwinglian’s influence creates war between Catholics and Protestants
      • Zwinglian’s forces defeated; Z killed, cut up and burned
    • Anabaptists create widespread revolution, leaders executed
    • Calvin’s Geneva seeks purity leading to severe punishments for “sinners”
  • 21. French Wars of Religion
    • Period lasting between 1562 and 1598
    • Huguenots vs. Ultra-Catholics
    • Henry of Navarre vs. Duke of Guise
    • Huguenots were 10% of population but 50% of the nobles
    • Well organized and well funded
    • Third group called politiques or people more interested in the state than religion
    • Catherine de Medici ruled France as regent for unstable sons of King Henry II (died in an accident)
  • 22. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572
  • 23. War of the Three Henrys (1574-1589)
    • Ultra-Catholics: Henry of Guise
    • Henry III, King of France (son of Henry II): Politiques
      • Lost influence due to massacre
    • Henry of Navarre
      • Turned Catholic to escape Paris in St. Bart’s Massacre, but turned back Calvinist
    • Henry of Guise and Henry III assassinate each other
    • Henry of Navarre gains throne by re-re-converting back to Catholicism
    • Continuing warfare leads to the passing of the Edict of Nantes in 1589, ending the war
  • 24. Cardinal Richelieu
    • After the death of Henry IV, his son, Louis XIII is too young to rule
    • Cardinal Richelieu assumes power as regent
    • Disarms and takes local power from Huguenots promised in the Edict of Nantes
    • Eliminates feudal castles, creates the French Academy, and strengthens the French monarchy
    • Creates spy network to root out plots and crush conspiracies, further increasing the central power of the state
  • 25. Anglicanism
    • King Henry VIII wanted the right to remarry when his wife, Catherine, could not produce a male heir
    • Pope Clement VII would normally have done so, but was dependent on Charles V, nephew of Catherine
    • With the Act of Supremacy , Henry removed all papal authority from England
    • Created the Anglican Church with the King at the head
    • The humanist, Thomas More, disagreed with the king’s actions and was beheaded
    • There was almost no ideological change from the Catholic Church
  • 26. Anglicanism After Henry
    • After Henry’s death, three of his children would reign, the sickly Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth.
    • Mary, Henry VIII’s first daughter, tries to convert England back to Catholicism
    • Mary would try to reinstitute Catholicism, in England
      • People resist leading to burnings, murders, and vodka drinks
    • Also after Henry’s death, the parliament of England reformed the church to follow with other Reformation churches
    • The Anglican church always retained the grandeur of Catholicism
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29. Catholic Reformation
    • Council of Trent
      • Revival of the Old
    • Renewed Papacy
    • Jesuits
    • Inquisition: Malleus Malificarum
  • 30. Council of Trent
    • In 1542, a general council was called to discuss religious differences
    • Met intermittently between 1542 and 1563 because of political strife
      • Not well attended
    • Nonetheless made important decisions
      • Only the Church can interpret scripture
      • Salvation requires works and faith
      • 7 Sacraments
      • Belief in transubstantiation, indulgences, and saints upheld
  • 31. Catholic Reforms in Trent
    • Priests must be officially trained at a seminary in one’s diocese
    • Illegal to forcefully push indulgences
    • Scripture and the Bible placed on equal footing
    • Latin upheld as the churches language
    • Eliminated pluralism and absenteeism
    • Gave bishops authority to enforce local rules of the church
  • 32. Jesuits
    • Started by St. Ignatius of Loyola
    • Supported the ultimate authority of the pope in all religious matters
      • Responsible for reasserting the authority of popes over councils at the Council of Trent
    • Militantly supportive of the Catholic Church
      • Engaged in “conflict for God”
    • Responsible for going out amongst the “heathens” and Protestants to covert them to Catholicism
    • Believed education of Catholics was key to creating a strong base for the Church
      • St. Francis Xavier one of the many missionaries, went to Asia to achieve converts in India, China, and Japan
  • 33. Other Monastic Orders Reformed
    • Franciscans returned to poverty and simplicity of St. Francis
    • Carmelite order formed by Teresa of Avilia as a mystic society to explore union between God and men (or more specifically women
    • St. Vincent de Paul : an order specifically started to help the poor
  • 34. Renewed Papacy
    • The ineffectual Pope Leo X led to Pope Clement VII who unsuccessfully fought against Henry VIII of England
    • The next pope, Paul III (1534-49) was a turning point for the Church
    • He created the Roman Inquisition to root out Protestant sympathizers and corrupt bishops and Cardinals
    • Accompanied Inquisition with focus on spiritual self-improvement and sanctity of the Church
  • 35. Inquisition: Spanish, Roman, or Christian?
  • 36. Inquisition Methods
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39. Mannerism and Late Renaissance
    • The political atmosphere in Italy changed with the takeover of Florence by the Medici
    • The religious atmosphere of Europe changed with the onset of the Protestantism
    • Art became disturbed and emotional
    Jacopo Pontormo, Entombment (1528)
  • 40. Bologna, Rape of the Sabine Woman (1583) Titian, Rape of Europa (1559)
  • 41.
    • Pieter Bruegel continued with some of the disturbing images just as the Italians, Triumph of Death (1561)
  • 42. Reformation Spreads