SportsNutrition_Chapter8_Water
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SportsNutrition_Chapter8_Water

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This online lecture features information about water and sport performance.

This online lecture features information about water and sport performance.

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SportsNutrition_Chapter8_Water SportsNutrition_Chapter8_Water Presentation Transcript

  • Water Chapter 8
  • Water
    • Arguably the most essential nutrient
    • Restriction can lead to death in days
    • Slight dehydration decreases performance
    Photo © Photodisc
  • Body Water
    • Constitutes 60% of body weight
    • Types of body water
      • Intracellular (inside cells)
        • Two-thirds of body water
      • Extracellular (outside cells)
        • One-third of body water
        • Lymph, blood plasma, etc.
  • Functions of Water
    • Provides cell structure
    • Serves as reactive medium
    • Provides for cooling
    • Assists in pH balance
    • Major constituent of blood volume
  • Sources of Water
    • Approximately 80% from ingested fluids
      • Milk, sports drinks, juices, other beverages
      • Caffeinated drinks can count
      • Bottled water (Is it the best?)
    • < 20% from ingested foods
      • Fruits, vegetables, etc.
    • Remainder formed during metabolism
  • Avenues of Water Loss
    • Urination
      • Major avenue of loss during rest
    • Defecation
    • Sweating
      • Major avenue of loss during exercise
    • Insensible perspiration
  • Water Balance Water intake < Water Loss Dehydration Water intake = Water Loss Balance Water intake > Water Loss Hyperhydration
  • Effects of Dehydration
  • Effects of Dehydration (continued)
  • Effects of Hyperhydration
    • Usually not a problem
      • Can be beneficial
    • Hyponatremia (water intoxication)
      • Excessive hyperhydration
      • Extensive sweating with only water replacement
      • Most common in ultra-endurance events
  • Monitoring Hydration Level
    • Monitor body weight fluctuations
      • Pre- and post-workout
      • From day to day (same time)
      • 2 to 3 cups per pound lost
    • Monitor urine color
    • Monitor urine specific gravity
  • Hydration Level and Urine Color
  • Current Recommendations for Water Intake
  • How can water intake for athletes be estimated?
    • Calculate based on daily energy expenditure
      • 1 milliliter of water/1 kcal expended
      • 1 cup = 240 milliliters
    • Then add the amount of water lost due to sweating
      • 2 to 3 cups for every pound lost during the workout or competition session
  • Fluid Sources of Water
    • There are many choices
    • Each offers benefits
    • Examples
      • Milk
      • Juices
      • Sport drinks
      • Tea
  • Food Sources of Water
  • Practical Suggestions for Staying Hydrated
    • Calculate individual needs.
    • Ideal hydration leads to urination every 1 to 2 hours.
    • Maintain pale urine.
    • Get daily fluids from a variety of sources.
    • Consume caffeinated drinks in moderation.
    • Don’t overdo protein consumption.
    • Be conscious of the effects of medications on hydration levels.
  • Factors Affecting Hydration Needs
    • Environmental temperature
    • Acclimatization of athlete
    • Altitude
    • Fitness level of athlete
    • Others?
  • Preexercise Hydration: How Much?
    • 24 hours prior
      • Meet predetermined fluid needs
    • 2 to 3 hours prior
      • 400 to 600 milliliters (i.e., approx. 2 to 3 cups)
    • 10 to 20 minutes prior
      • 200 to 300 milliliters (i.e., approx. 1 cup)
  • Preexercise Hydration: What Type?
    • Variety is good
    • Water
    • Juices
    • Milk
    • Sports drinks (+/-)
    • Caffeinated drinks?
    • Carbonated drinks not recommended
    Photo © Liquid Library Photo © AbleStock Photo © PhotoDisc
  • Hydration During Exercise: How Much?
    • Purpose
      • Maintain hydration
      • Maintain electrolytes
    • 200 to 300 milliliters (i.e., about ~1–1.5 cups)
      • Sweat trials can help determine ideal fluid intake
    • Every 10 to 20 minutes
    • Thirst is not a good guide
    Photo © Photos.com
  • Hydration During Exercise: What Type?
    • Water is excellent
    • Sport beverages:
      • If taste is preferred over water
      • If practice or event lasts longer than 60 to 90 minutes
      • 6–8% carbohydrate mix
    • Fruit juices are not recommended
    Photo © Photos.com
  • Practical Guidelines for Keeping Athletes Hydrated During Exercise
    • Fluids should be readily available.
    • Fluids being consumed should be based on personal preference for taste.
    • Regular and frequent breaks should be allowed.
    • Start ingesting fluids early during exercise before getting thirsty.
    • Drink cool fluids (50 – 59 o F) rather than warm ones.
    • Have athletes practice staying hydrated during training not just during competition.
  • Postexercise Hydration
    • Begin rehydrating as soon as possible.
    • Drinks and foods containing carbohydrates and sodium are good choices.
    • Plan ahead and have drinks readily available.
    • Avoid drinking large quantities in a short time.
    • Drink 2 to 3 cups of fluid for every pound lost.