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# Unpacking the ground rules to diagnose and intervene

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• 1. Unpacking the Ground Rules to Diagnose and Intervene in Group Process
• 2. Assumptions and Inferences Assumptions Inferences Taking something for granted without verifying it Drawing a conclusion about what you do not know on the basis of things that you do know
• 3. Nine Ground Rules for Effective Groups Ground Rule # 1: Test assumptions and inferences Ground Rule # 6: Combine advocacy and inquiry Ground Rule # 7: Jointly design next steps and ways to test disagreements Ground Rule # 2: Share all relevant information Ground Rule # 5: Focus on interests, not positions Ground Rule # 8: Discuss undiscussible issues Ground Rule # 3: Use specific examples and agree on what important words mean Ground Rule # 4: Explain your reasoning and intent Ground Rule # 9: Use a decision-making rule to generate commitment
• 4. Ladder of Inference (Argyris & Schön, 1978)  Take action base on belief  Adopt beliefs  Draw conclusions  Make assumptions  Add meanings  Select data  Observable data and experience
• 5. How Do You Apply the Ladder of Inference by Using Advocacy and inquiry? Walk “Down” the Ladder Identify the conclusion someone is making Ask for the data that led to the conclusion Inquire into the reasoning that connects data and conclusion Infer a possible belief or assumption State your inference and test it with the person
• 6. 3. Decide whether, how, and why to test your inference 2. Infer meaning (recognize your inference) 1. Observe Behavior 4. Describe behavior. Test for different views. 5. Share inference. Test for different Views. 6. Help group decide whether and how to change behavior. Test for different views. The Diagnosis and Intervention Cycle
• 7. The Diagnosis and Intervention Cycle Step 1. Directly observe the behavior in the group – the words that are spoken and the nonverbal actions they make. (like a video camera would record them!) Step 2. Infer meaning from the behavior you observe. Draw a conclusion about something unknown on the basis of things that are known to you. Step 3. Decide whether, how, and why to intervene. You either remain silent or you decide what you will say, and to whom.
• 8. The Diagnosis and Intervention Cycle Step 4. Publically describe the behavior you observed. Ask the group member(s) whether they observed behavior differently. If they agree with you, move to Step 5. Step 5. Publicly share the inference that you made privately in Step 2 and test it with group members. You are asking if others see it differently. If it is not seen differently, move to Step 6. Step 6. Help group members change their behavior. Group members need to decide whether or how to change their behavior to be more effective.
• 9. The Cycle Continues 0 At Steps 4, 5, and 6, you publically share your reasoning and intent. TRANSPARENCY! 0 Assuming that group members are willing to change their behavior to be more effective, the cycle begins again. 0 As the facilitator, you continue to observe whether the behavior of group members is contributing to or hindering the group’s effectiveness.