A bunch of definitions: power, social influence,
Some social psychology experiments: Asch and
How people influence each other and more
definitions: soft power and harsh power
There’s a power cycle and interdependence wins
Empower the people: the Saturn Model
Assertiveness training is effective for groups and
a fun exercise!
Ability to change beliefs, attitudes or
behaviors of others
Change in behavior due to social pressure but not
change in beliefs or attitudes
Change in both behaviors and attitudes
due to social pressure
Normative influence: desire to meet
expectations of others and be accepted
Informational influence: accept information
from others about a situation
Asch (1955): choose a line that is same as target line
• those alone rarely made errors
•when in group with members giving wrong answers, they gave wrong answers more often
•only 20% did not give in to group pressure
Informational, they must have
misunderstood the instructions
Normative, group would disapprove of them
for different answers
Nonconformists were rated as undesirable
Milgram (1974): participants asked to send electric shocks to learners
when they made a mistake
•65% continued to give shocks even at dangerous levels
•authority figure did not have power to reward or punish but still obtained
significant obedience from participants
Personal (Soft Power)
Positional (Harsh Power)
Expert: has expertise
Legitimate: has authority
Referent: has admiration
Reward: has the reward
Information: has knowledge
Coercive: has the punishment
Social Influence Tactic
Uses logical arguments
Seeks others in decision
Appeals to person’s ideals
Relies on emotion
Relies on support
Seeks aid of others to
In the workplace is the concept of shifting
“power and authority” from managers to
Workers have increase in motivation and job
Improvement noted in
Employers loose “control”
Managers are held accountable for final
output but they may be asked to relinquish
power to employees
72% of supervisors believe empowerment is good
for the organization yet only 31% believe that it is
good for supervisors
Change the company structure so that
employees have more power on their jobs.
▪ If jobs are strongly controlled by organizational
procedures or if every little decision needs to be
approved by a superior, employees are unlikely to feel
empowered. Give them discretion at work.
Provide employees with access to information
about things that affect their work.
▪ When employees have the information they need to do
their jobs well and understand company goals, priorities,
and strategy, they are in a better position to feel
Make sure that employees know how to
perform their jobs.
This involves selecting the right people as well as
investing in continued training and development.
Do not take away employee power.
If someone makes a decision, let it stand unless it
threatens the entire company. If management
undoes decisions made by employees on a regular
basis, employees will not believe in the sincerity of
the empowerment initiative.
Instill a climate of empowerment in which
managers do not routinely step in and take
Instead, believe in the power of employees to
make the most accurate decisions, as long as they
are equipped with the relevant facts and
- polite and deferential; avoids confrontation; refuses to take a stand;
- driven by insecurity, anxiety, fear
- goal: to gain approval and be liked
- forceful, critical, negative
- driven by anger, insecurity, distrust
- goal: to win (without compromise)
- clear, confident and diplomatic communication (not emotional)
- driven by high self-esteem; respect and concern for both others and oneself
- goal: to find the best solution
(ON SELF AND OTHERS)
- polite, deferential
- avoids confrontation
- refuses to take a stand
-----------------------confusion, no respect
- unequal status
- forceful, critical, negative
- refuses to compromise
- focus is on winning
- emergency situations
- an impasse
- unequal status
- clear, confident, open
- respects self and others
- focus on problem solving
- MOST SITUATIONS
- equal status
The ASSERTIVE style
is most conducive to
Assertiveness can be
POWER among team
Levi, Daniel. Group Dynamics for Teams. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage
Publications, 2007. 129-146. Print
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"Solomon Asch Experiment (1958)A Study of Conformity." Solomon Asch Study
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The Exeter Blog » Milgram’s Obedience Experiment 50 Years On: The Banality of
Evil, or Working towards the Führer?" The Exeter Blog RSS. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
"Appinions: The Science of Influence Marketing." Appinions Does Popularity Equal
Social Influence Comments. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
"A Perfect World." - Archives, 2005, 193. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
"MeshIPÂ® Blog." MeshIP Blog. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
"Quality Management 2.0 Blog." Quality 101: Employee Involvement and
Empowerment. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
Fryer, Lashon. "The Definition of Employee Empowerment | EHow." EHow.
Demand Media, 09 June 2009. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
“Expressing vs Acting Out Anger: Assertiveness." How To Lose Control and Gain
Emotional Freedom. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.
Teams: Choose your roles. Design a skit with examples of assertiveness
in a team member (italics):
Medical Team: attending, fellow, resident, student
Task: Discussing a case at rounds, medical student wants to have some
input but resident is trying to impress attending
Inter-professional team 1: Physician, Nurse, Social Worker, Physical
Task: Patient has dementia and will need arrangements for chronic
care, social worker wants to make team aware that family has few
Inter-professional team 2: Trauma Surgeon, ER physician, Trauma
Nurse, Laboratory Tech
Task: Team is meeting to improve patient safety in trauma ER, power
struggle between trauma surgeon and ER physician
Research Team: PI, Grad Student, Undergrad Student, Research
Task: Team is meeting to decide how they will get research project
submitted by deadline, research tech feels overwhelmed