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Power and social influence, chapter 8



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  • 1. Levi Chapter 8
  • 2. A bunch of definitions: power, social influence, compliance, acceptance  Some social psychology experiments: Asch and Milgram  How people influence each other and more definitions: soft power and harsh power  There’s a power cycle and interdependence wins  Empower the people: the Saturn Model  Assertiveness training is effective for groups and a fun exercise! 
  • 3. Attempts to affect or change others
  • 4. Ability to change beliefs, attitudes or behaviors of others
  • 5. Change in behavior due to social pressure but not change in beliefs or attitudes
  • 6. Change in both behaviors and attitudes due to social pressure
  • 7.  Normative influence: desire to meet expectations of others and be accepted  Informational influence: accept information from others about a situation
  • 8. Asch (1955): choose a line that is same as target line • those alone rarely made errors •when in group with members giving wrong answers, they gave wrong answers more often •only 20% did not give in to group pressure
  • 9.  Informational, they must have misunderstood the instructions  Normative, group would disapprove of them for different answers  Nonconformists were rated as undesirable members
  • 10. Milgram (1974): participants asked to send electric shocks to learners when they made a mistake •65% continued to give shocks even at dangerous levels •authority figure did not have power to reward or punish but still obtained significant obedience from participants
  • 11.  Groups are like sheep
  • 12. Personal (Soft Power) Positional (Harsh Power) Expert: has expertise Legitimate: has authority Referent: has admiration Reward: has the reward Information: has knowledge Coercive: has the punishment Personal > Positional
  • 13. Social Influence Tactic Definition Strategy *Rational Argument Uses logical arguments Cooperative *Consultation Seeks others in decision Cooperative *Inspirational appeals Appeals to person’s ideals Relies on emotion Personal appeals Uses loyalty Direct, overt Ingratiation Uses flattery Indirect, covert Exchange Offers favors Relies on support Pressure Uses threats Direct, overt Legitimizing tactics Claims authority Direct, overt Coalition tactics Seeks aid of others to increase power Indirect, covert
  • 14.  People are manipulative
  • 15. Power seeks more power “All animals are equal, but some are more equal.” George Orwell, Animal Farm
  • 16. Access leads to use Self-esteem elevated Target’s worth diminished increasing social distance Belief of being in control Takes credit and views target less worthy
  • 17. Impacts trust and communication  Influenced by status  Norms can equalize 
  • 18. Consistency Self-confidence Autonomy Relationship to larger group  Provides alternative perspective    
  • 19.  The best teams have Kumbaya
  • 20.  In the workplace is the concept of shifting “power and authority” from managers to employees.
  • 21.   Workers have increase in motivation and job satisfaction Improvement noted in  Customer service  Quality  “thru put”
  • 22.   Employers loose “control” Managers are held accountable for final output but they may be asked to relinquish power to employees  72% of supervisors believe empowerment is good for the organization yet only 31% believe that it is good for supervisors
  • 23.  Change the company structure so that employees have more power on their jobs. ▪ If jobs are strongly controlled by organizational procedures or if every little decision needs to be approved by a superior, employees are unlikely to feel empowered. Give them discretion at work.
  • 24.  Provide employees with access to information about things that affect their work. ▪ When employees have the information they need to do their jobs well and understand company goals, priorities, and strategy, they are in a better position to feel empowered.
  • 25.  Make sure that employees know how to perform their jobs.  This involves selecting the right people as well as investing in continued training and development.
  • 26.  Do not take away employee power.  If someone makes a decision, let it stand unless it threatens the entire company. If management undoes decisions made by employees on a regular basis, employees will not believe in the sincerity of the empowerment initiative.
  • 27.  Instill a climate of empowerment in which managers do not routinely step in and take over.  Instead, believe in the power of employees to make the most accurate decisions, as long as they are equipped with the relevant facts and resources.
  • 28.  Give the power to the people
  • 29.  Assertiveness is a skill and an attitude
  • 30. PASSIVE (nonassertive) - polite and deferential; avoids confrontation; refuses to take a stand; - driven by insecurity, anxiety, fear - goal: to gain approval and be liked AGGRESSIVE - forceful, critical, negative - driven by anger, insecurity, distrust - goal: to win (without compromise) ASSERTIVE - clear, confident and diplomatic communication (not emotional) - driven by high self-esteem; respect and concern for both others and oneself - goal: to find the best solution
  • 31. STYLE CHARACTERISTICS IMPACT UTILITY (ON SELF AND OTHERS) passive - polite, deferential - avoids confrontation - refuses to take a stand stress, resentment -----------------------confusion, no respect - dangerous/ emotional situations - unequal status aggressive - forceful, critical, negative - refuses to compromise - focus is on winning satisfaction -----------------------resentment, withdrawal - emergency situations - an impasse - unequal status assertive - clear, confident, open - respects self and others - focus on problem solving satisfaction -----------------------trust, communication - MOST SITUATIONS - equal status (nonassertive)
  • 32. The ASSERTIVE style is most conducive to effective teamwork Assertiveness can be encouraged by: 1) EQUALIZING POWER among team members 2) ASSERTIVENESS TRAINING
  • 33.  Active listening  Positive recognition  Clear expectations  Saying “no”  Assertive withdrawal
  • 34.  Encourage assertiveness
  • 35.           Levi, Daniel. Group Dynamics for Teams. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 2007. 129-146. Print "Social Influence Meme Apr 21 20:31 UTC." Memecrunch. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. "Solomon Asch Experiment (1958)A Study of Conformity." Solomon Asch Study Social Pressure Conformity Experiment Psychology. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. The Exeter Blog » Milgram’s Obedience Experiment 50 Years On: The Banality of Evil, or Working towards the Führer?" The Exeter Blog RSS. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. "Appinions: The Science of Influence Marketing." Appinions Does Popularity Equal Social Influence Comments. Web. 17 Oct. 2013. "A Perfect World." - Archives, 2005, 193. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. "MeshIP® Blog." MeshIP Blog. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. "Quality Management 2.0 Blog." Quality 101: Employee Involvement and Empowerment. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. Fryer, Lashon. "The Definition of Employee Empowerment | EHow." EHow. Demand Media, 09 June 2009. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. “Expressing vs Acting Out Anger: Assertiveness." How To Lose Control and Gain Emotional Freedom. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.
  • 36. Teams: Choose your roles. Design a skit with examples of assertiveness in a team member (italics): Medical Team: attending, fellow, resident, student Task: Discussing a case at rounds, medical student wants to have some input but resident is trying to impress attending Inter-professional team 1: Physician, Nurse, Social Worker, Physical Therapist Task: Patient has dementia and will need arrangements for chronic care, social worker wants to make team aware that family has few resources Inter-professional team 2: Trauma Surgeon, ER physician, Trauma Nurse, Laboratory Tech Task: Team is meeting to improve patient safety in trauma ER, power struggle between trauma surgeon and ER physician Research Team: PI, Grad Student, Undergrad Student, Research Technologist Task: Team is meeting to decide how they will get research project submitted by deadline, research tech feels overwhelmed