• Students focused on “the grade” above all else
– “Will this be on the test?”
– “Are we responsible for this?”
• Few students spontaneously assess efficacy of
• Students benefit from prompting assessment
of their outcomes from their behaviors
• When exam returned short handout given to
– How did they prepare?
– What did they get wrong?
– How do you plan to change?
• What can the course change?
• Keep these and redistribute about a week
before the next exam if possible
How did they prepare?
• Students confront what they did
• Emphasizes many tools that can be used to
learn the content
– Highlights tools learners may not have realized
– Makes them consider how they could or should
What did they get right and wrong?
• Makes learners objectively look at where they
– Do well – no need to review missed questions
– Do poorly – “leave the pain behind”
• Can assess where they were stuck with
How do you plan to change?
• Students see the association between
studying and exam performance
• Can choose more effective studying methods
• Minimal time used from
• Minimal time
• Not specific to
• Can be used multiple
times with continued
• Ambrose SA, Bridges MW, Lovett MC, et al.
How learning works: 7 research-based
principles for smart teaching. 1st ed. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2010. 251-4.
– Analyze performance *strength/weaknesses
– How to improve future learning
• How do you improve studying for next time?
– Teachers can assess patterns
• Change emphasis of content
• Make students aware of successful methods