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Decision Making And Problem Solving For Feb 24 Class
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Decision Making And Problem Solving For Feb 24 Class


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  • 1. Group Decision-making and Problem-solving Cycles of Group Movement and “Stuckness” Learning in Groups and Teams Spring 2010
  • 2. Agenda
    • In pairs, discuss an example of group decision-making in your work setting
        • What type of decision-making was used?
        • Why was it appropriate or not, given the circumstances?
    • Discussion of group decision-making
    • How can this knowledge be applied?
    • What are the consequences?
  • 3. Three Approaches to Group Decision-Making
  • 4. Decision-Making in Groups and Teams
  • 5. Decision-Making in Groups and Teams
  • 6. January 28, 1986 The Challenger explosion claims the lives of all seven members of its crew. December 7, 1941 The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor kills more than 2,300 Americans. April 17, 1961 1,300 members of a CIA-supported force storms the beaches of Cuba. Groupthink is a phenomenon wherein people seek unanimous agreement in spite of contrary facts pointing to another conclusion.
  • 7. Decision Making Problems
    • Groupthink Symptoms
    • Unwaivering belief that the group’s decisions will work
    • Collective rationalization
    • Belief in the morality of the group
    • Direct pressure on dissenters – suppression of negative comments in group discussion
    • Overestimation of the group’s superiority compared to others
    • Self-censorship – group members do not state their opinion if it differs from others
    • Illusion of unanimity – belief that everyone agrees with the decision
    • Group members protect the leader and group from negative information about the decision
  • 8. Groupthink: Cause and Prevention
    • Eight warning signs
    • The illusion of invulnerability
    • Belief in the inherent group morality
    • Rationalization of group views
    • Stereotyping of out-groups
    • Self-censorship
    • Direct pressure on dissenters
    • Self-appointed mindguards
    • The illusion of unanimity
    • Four key preventative strategies:
    • Establish an open climate
    • Avoid the isolation of the group
    • Assign the role of critical evaluator
    • Avoid being too directive
  • 9. Maier’s article: Challenger Syndrome
  • 10. Jerry Harvey’s Trip to Abilene
    • What is the Abilene Paradox?
      • When groups make decisions that are contrary to what they really want to do and thereby defeat the purposes they want to achieve.
      • Harvey believes that organization’s failure to manage agreement is a major source of organizational dysfunction.
  • 11.  
  • 12. How would you define a paradox? A paradox is a statement that expresses an apparent contradiction that is actually true..
  • 13. Smith and Berg (1987) identified several types of paradox in group life:
    • Belonging
      • Identity, Involvement, Individuality, and Boundaries
    • Engaging
      • Disclosure, Trust, Intimacy, Regression
    • Speaking
      • Authority, Dependency, Creativity, Courage
    • Contextual Influences
      • Importing/exporting frames of reference
    • Inter- group Influences
      • Scarcity, perception, and power
  • 14. Organizational Diagnostic Survey