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Countercurrent costanzo

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  • 1. Figure 6-38 Mechanism of countercurrent multiplication in a loop of Henle. See the text for an explanation of the circled numbers; numbers are osmolarities of tubular fluid or interstitial fluid; arrows show the direction of fluid flow; heavy outline shows water impermeability of the ascending limb. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 2 October 2013 07:55 PM) © 2005 Elsevier
  • 2. Figure 6-39 Mechanism of urea recycling from inner medullary collecting ducts. See the text for an explanation of the circled numbers. ADH, Antidiuretic hormone; [TF], tubular fluid concentration; UT1, urea transporter 1. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 2 October 2013 07:55 PM) © 2005 Elsevier
  • 3. Figure 6-40 Countercurrent exchange in the vasa recta. Solid dark blue arrows show the direction of solute movement; dashed green arrows show the direction of water movement; thick light blue arrows show blood flow through the vasa recta; numbers are osmolarity in mOsm/L. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 2 October 2013 07:56 PM) © 2005 Elsevier
  • 4. Figure 6-41 Cellular mechanism of action of antidiuretic hormone in the principal cell of the late distal tubule and collecting duct. See the text for an explanation of the circled numbers. AC, Adenylyl cyclase; ADH, antidiuretic hormone; AQP2, aquaporin 2; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cyclic AMP; Gs, stimulatory G protein; R, V2 receptor. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 2 October 2013 07:56 PM) © 2005 Elsevier
  • 5. Figure 6-42 Mechanisms for production of hyperosmotic (concentrated) urine in the presence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Arrows show location of water reabsorption; heavy outline shows water-impermeable portions of the nephron; numbers are osmolarity of tubular fluid or interstitial fluid. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 2 October 2013 07:56 PM) © 2005 Elsevier
  • 6. Figure 6-43 Mechanisms for production of hyposmotic (dilute) urine in the absence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Arrow shows location of water reabsorption; heavy outline shows water-impermeable portions of the nephron; numbers are osmolarity of tubular fluid or interstitial fluid. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 2 October 2013 07:56 PM) © 2005 Elsevier
  • 7. Figure 6-43 Mechanisms for production of hyposmotic (dilute) urine in the absence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Arrow shows location of water reabsorption; heavy outline shows water-impermeable portions of the nephron; numbers are osmolarity of tubular fluid or interstitial fluid. Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 2 October 2013 07:56 PM) © 2005 Elsevier