Question Design and
Methodological
Considerations
ADLT 673 – Teaching
as Scholarship in
Medical Education
Class Session 4
Agenda for February 24
Feedback on
Your Research
Questions

Formation of
Project
Discussion
Groups
Any changes
needed?

Te...
To move from opinionbased curricula to
evidence-based as a
result of research
findings

What do you perceive as
the goal o...
Create a
clear
question

Disseminatio
n of results

Reporting

Medical
Education
research is a
highly
structured
process

...
What is a conceptual framework?
A model that organizes different parts of a study
into a coherent whole

System of
concept...
4 common conceptual frameworks
Kirkpatrick model (modified by Barr et al., 2005)
• Learner satisfaction, Change in attitud...
Research Questions
Quantitative methods
• Does? Is (are)? Can? Should?

Qualitative methods
• What?
• Why?

Quantitative, ...
Quantitative Approaches
Post-course
designs

Longitudinal
studies

Randomized
controlled
trials (RCTs)

Before and
after s...
Qualitative Approaches
Ethnography

Action
Research

Case Studies

Phenomenology

Grounded
Theory
Terminology in Qualitative
Methodology
Inductive Approach
Iterative Approach
Thematic Analysis / Emergent Design
Reflexivi...
Rigor and Quality in Research
Methods
Quantitative


Internal Validity

Qualitative


Credibility (truth value)



Tran...
Models for Mixed Methods
Research in Medical Education
Instrument Development
(questionnaires, checklists)
Explanatory Mod...
Issues for Consideration
Availability of resources to conduct the research
(time, money, and personnel with requisite stre...
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Class session 4 question design and methodological choices

  1. 1. Question Design and Methodological Considerations ADLT 673 – Teaching as Scholarship in Medical Education Class Session 4
  2. 2. Agenda for February 24 Feedback on Your Research Questions Formation of Project Discussion Groups Any changes needed? Team-Based Learning Exercise 3 TBLs for remainder of course Grades counted on two (5 points each)
  3. 3. To move from opinionbased curricula to evidence-based as a result of research findings What do you perceive as the goal of SoTL in Medical Education?
  4. 4. Create a clear question Disseminatio n of results Reporting Medical Education research is a highly structured process Data analysis Choice of methodolog y and design Subject recruitment
  5. 5. What is a conceptual framework? A model that organizes different parts of a study into a coherent whole System of concepts, assumptions, expectations, beliefs, a nd theories that support and inform your research (Miles and Huberman, 1994) A visual or written product that explains the main things to be studied: key factors, concepts, or variables
  6. 6. 4 common conceptual frameworks Kirkpatrick model (modified by Barr et al., 2005) • Learner satisfaction, Change in attitudes, Change in knowledge/skill • Change in behavior, Change in professional practice • Change in patient condition , Cost Effectiveness Translational Science Model • Medical knowledge translates to practice – 3 levels 3-P Model: Presage-Process-Product Cook classification – hierarchical, based on purpose of study (description, justification, clarification)
  7. 7. Research Questions Quantitative methods • Does? Is (are)? Can? Should? Qualitative methods • What? • Why? Quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods • How?
  8. 8. Quantitative Approaches Post-course designs Longitudinal studies Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) Before and after studies Controlled before and after studies
  9. 9. Qualitative Approaches Ethnography Action Research Case Studies Phenomenology Grounded Theory
  10. 10. Terminology in Qualitative Methodology Inductive Approach Iterative Approach Thematic Analysis / Emergent Design Reflexivity Representativeness Saturation Triangulation Resonance or member checks
  11. 11. Rigor and Quality in Research Methods Quantitative  Internal Validity Qualitative  Credibility (truth value)  Transferability (applicability)  External Validity  Reliability  Dependability (consistency)  Objectivity  Confirmability (neutrality)
  12. 12. Models for Mixed Methods Research in Medical Education Instrument Development (questionnaires, checklists) Explanatory Model (to complement or clarify)* Triangulation Model (data collected simultaneously)* Longitudinal transformation (multiple data points, often more than one population)
  13. 13. Issues for Consideration Availability of resources to conduct the research (time, money, and personnel with requisite strengths) Access to tools and programs (software, data security and storage) Challenges in publishing mixed methods studies • Need to have expertise in both qualitative and quantitative • Need to be able to address alternative (pragmatic) paradigm Decide on prominence of each data type; formulate questions appropriate for each aspect of study Decisions on how and when data are collected, analyzed and integrated

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