Withdrawal or denial responses: passivity, indifference, overuse of “logic and reason”
First, a period of self-oriented behavior
As self-oriented concerns are addressed, people pay more attention to each other and the task at hand
The work of “building” the group occurs simultaneously with task accomplishment
Weisbord’s Conditions for Team Success
Interdependence - people are working on problems in which each person has a stake
Leadership - the boss wants to improve team performance and is willing to take some risks
Joint decision - all members agree to participate
Equal influence - each person has a chance to influence the agenda
Questions Asked by New Team Members
Am I in or out?
Do I have any power or control?
Can I use, develop, and be appreciated for my skills and resources?
Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development
Task Dimensions T he relationship between group members and the task they are to perform. Task refers to the job they have to do and how they go about doing it.
Process dimensions The relationships of group members with one another -- how they feel toward one another and how they feel about their membership in the group.
Task and Process Dimensions
Highly interdependent in practice; without both dimensions, group process does not exist
Task output is productivity
Process output is cohesiveness
Relationship Between Cohesiveness and Productivity Productivity Cohesiveness
Promoting Cohesiveness in Groups
Encourage interpersonal attraction through attitudinal similarity
Increase contact time
Build perceptions of others as likeable
Create opportunities for self-disclosure
Promote group identification
Cohesiveness in Groups, con’t
Develop relationships and shared norms
Promote acceptance of all members
Encourage external threats
An Effective Team Possesses...
Adequate mechanisms for getting feedback
Flexible organization and procedures
Maximum use of member resources
Clear goals accepted by all members
Feelings of interdependence
Shared participation in leadership functions, including decision making
Acceptance of minority views and persons
References Levi, D. (2011). Group dynamics for teams . (3rd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Schein, E. H. (1999). Process consultation revisited: Building the helping relationship . Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Weisbord, M. R. (2004). Productive workplaces revisited: Dignity, meaning, and community in the 21 st century . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.