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Class 7 Adlt 601 Fall 2009
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Class 7 Adlt 601 Fall 2009

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  • 1. Theoretical Orientations to Learning Based on the work of Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner, Learning in Adulthood , 2007 (3 rd edition).
  • 2. What is learning? Traditional Definition (psychology): Learning is a change in behavior This has many limitations!
  • 3. Alternative Definition: Learning is a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one’s knowledge, skills, values, and worldviews (Illeris, 2000).
  • 4. Theoretical Learning Orientations
    • Behaviorist
    • Cognitive
    • Humanistic
  • 5. Behaviorists
    • John B. Watson, early 20th century
    • Edward Thorndike (1920s)
      • Stimulus Response
      • Law of Effect
      • Law of Exercise
      • Law of Readiness
    • B. F. Skinner (1950s - 1970s)
      • Operant conditioning
  • 6. Behavioral Learning Theory
    • Three basic assumptions:
      • Learning results in a change in behavior
      • Environment shapes behavior
      • Principles of contiguity and reinforcement
  • 7. Who was B. F. Skinner?
      • http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =mm5FGrQEyBY
  • 8. B. F. Skinner
    • Lived from 1904 until 1990
    • “ Behaviorist”
    • As a young boy, was an inventor of machines
    • Became interested in animal psychology at Harvard
    • Adult projects included:
      • Project Pidgeon
      • The Baby Tender
      • Walden Two
      • Teaching machines and Programmed Instruction
  • 9. Evidences of Behavioral Learning Theory in Use Today
    • Human resource development (HRD)
      • Measurable objectives
      • Competency based instruction
      • Computer assisted instruction
      • Instructor accountability
      • Human performance technology (HPT)
  • 10. Cognitive Learning Theory
    • Defined learning as reorganization of experience to make sense of stimuli from the environment
      • Focuses on mental processes
      • Accounts for insight
      • Locus of control for learning is not in the environment, but internal to the learner
  • 11. Evidences of Cognitive Learning Theory in Use Today
    • Research on cognitive development in adulthood
    • Learning how to learn research
    • Study of learning processes as a function of age
  • 12. Ausubel’s (1963) Concept of Advance Organizers
    • Phase 1: Present the advance organizer
    • Phase 2: Present the task or material
    • Phase 3: Strengthen cognitive organization
  • 13.  
  • 14. Learners should:
    • Compare and contrast exemplars and non-exemplars
    • Inductively discover concepts
    • Generate their own examples
    • Discuss hypotheses and attributes
    "Learners are encouraged to discover facts and relationships for themselves." Bruner’s (1967) Concept Attainment Strategy
  • 15. Bloom’s Taxonomy Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge
  • 16. Humanist Learning Theory
    • Humans are in control of their own destinies with unlimited potential for growth
    • Motivation to learn is intrinsic
    • Goal of self-actualization
  • 17. Influences of Humanistic Thought in Learning Theory
    • Andragogy (Knowles, Houle, Tough)
    • Personal growth movement
    • Self-directed learning
    • Teacher as “facilitator”
      • Developer of talent in organizations through coaching, mentoring
  • 18. Who was Abraham Maslow?
        • Psychologist; lived 1908-1970
          • Founder of humanistic psychology
          • Famous for concept of a hierarchy of human needs
  • 19. Who was Carl Rogers?
    • Psychologist/
    • Psychiatrist (1902 - 1987)
    • Known for “client-centered” or “non-directive” therapy
    • Influenced by Dewey among others
    • “Humanist”
    http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =HarEcd4bt-s
  • 20. With which of these learning theories do YOU most closely identify? This is the key to your personal philosophy of practice as an educator.