Class 7 Adlt 601 Fall 2009


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Class 7 Adlt 601 Fall 2009

  1. 1. Theoretical Orientations to Learning Based on the work of Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner, Learning in Adulthood , 2007 (3 rd edition).
  2. 2. What is learning? Traditional Definition (psychology): Learning is a change in behavior This has many limitations!
  3. 3. Alternative Definition: Learning is a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one’s knowledge, skills, values, and worldviews (Illeris, 2000).
  4. 4. Theoretical Learning Orientations <ul><li>Behaviorist </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic </li></ul>
  5. 5. Behaviorists <ul><li>John B. Watson, early 20th century </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Thorndike (1920s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of Readiness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. F. Skinner (1950s - 1970s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Behavioral Learning Theory <ul><li>Three basic assumptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning results in a change in behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment shapes behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of contiguity and reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Who was B. F. Skinner? <ul><ul><li>http:// =mm5FGrQEyBY </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. B. F. Skinner <ul><li>Lived from 1904 until 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Behaviorist” </li></ul><ul><li>As a young boy, was an inventor of machines </li></ul><ul><li>Became interested in animal psychology at Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>Adult projects included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Pidgeon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Baby Tender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walden Two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching machines and Programmed Instruction </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Evidences of Behavioral Learning Theory in Use Today <ul><li>Human resource development (HRD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competency based instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer assisted instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human performance technology (HPT) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cognitive Learning Theory <ul><li>Defined learning as reorganization of experience to make sense of stimuli from the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for insight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locus of control for learning is not in the environment, but internal to the learner </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Evidences of Cognitive Learning Theory in Use Today <ul><li>Research on cognitive development in adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Learning how to learn research </li></ul><ul><li>Study of learning processes as a function of age </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ausubel’s (1963) Concept of Advance Organizers <ul><li>Phase 1: Present the advance organizer </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Present the task or material </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3: Strengthen cognitive organization </li></ul>
  13. 14. Learners should: <ul><li>Compare and contrast exemplars and non-exemplars </li></ul><ul><li>Inductively discover concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Generate their own examples </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss hypotheses and attributes </li></ul>&quot;Learners are encouraged to discover facts and relationships for themselves.&quot; Bruner’s (1967) Concept Attainment Strategy
  14. 15. Bloom’s Taxonomy Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge
  15. 16. Humanist Learning Theory <ul><li>Humans are in control of their own destinies with unlimited potential for growth </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation to learn is intrinsic </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of self-actualization </li></ul>
  16. 17. Influences of Humanistic Thought in Learning Theory <ul><li>Andragogy (Knowles, Houle, Tough) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal growth movement </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directed learning </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher as “facilitator” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developer of talent in organizations through coaching, mentoring </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Who was Abraham Maslow? <ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologist; lived 1908-1970 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founder of humanistic psychology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Famous for concept of a hierarchy of human needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Who was Carl Rogers? <ul><li>Psychologist/ </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatrist (1902 - 1987) </li></ul><ul><li>Known for “client-centered” or “non-directive” therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Dewey among others </li></ul><ul><li>“Humanist” </li></ul>http:// =HarEcd4bt-s
  19. 20. With which of these learning theories do YOU most closely identify? This is the key to your personal philosophy of practice as an educator.