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Class 5 adult development theories___longer_version
 

Class 5 adult development theories___longer_version

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    Class 5 adult development theories___longer_version Class 5 adult development theories___longer_version Presentation Transcript

    • Adult DevelopmentAdult Development TheoriesTheories Class 3Class 3 ADLT 601 – The Adult LearnerADLT 601 – The Adult Learner Spring 2006Spring 2006
    • Personal Development TheoristsPersonal Development Theorists  Age / StageAge / Stage  Development proceeds according to a series of stagesDevelopment proceeds according to a series of stages adults pass through as they ageadults pass through as they age  Life EventsLife Events  Development coincides with major life events such asDevelopment coincides with major life events such as marriage, death of spouse, etcmarriage, death of spouse, etc  TransitionsTransitions  Development marked by periods of transition from oneDevelopment marked by periods of transition from one stage to anotherstage to another
    • Age – Stage TheoristsAge – Stage Theorists Levinson (1978, 1996)Levinson (1978, 1996) Gilligan (1986)Gilligan (1986) Havighurst (1981)Havighurst (1981) Maslow (1968)Maslow (1968) Gould (1978)Gould (1978) Erikson (1959)Erikson (1959)
    • Daniel LevinsonDaniel Levinson  Life cycle composed of 4 developmental periodsLife cycle composed of 4 developmental periods  Childhood – Adolescence (birth – age 20)Childhood – Adolescence (birth – age 20)  Early Adulthood (ages 17-45)Early Adulthood (ages 17-45)  Middle Adulthood (ages 40 – 65)Middle Adulthood (ages 40 – 65)  Late Adulthood (ages 60 – onward)Late Adulthood (ages 60 – onward)  Each transition takes 3-6 years to completeEach transition takes 3-6 years to complete  Concept of individuation – changing relationshipConcept of individuation – changing relationship between self and the worldbetween self and the world
    • Carol GilliganCarol Gilligan  Feminist perspective on age-stage theoriesFeminist perspective on age-stage theories  Highly critical of Levinson’s concept of “theHighly critical of Levinson’s concept of “the dream”dream”  Male identity build upon contrast andMale identity build upon contrast and separateness to primary care-giverseparateness to primary care-giver  Female identity based on perceptions ofFemale identity based on perceptions of sameness and attachment to primary caregiversameness and attachment to primary caregiver
    • Gilligan, con’tGilligan, con’t  Women’s moral judgment proceeds throughWomen’s moral judgment proceeds through three levelsthree levels  Focus on self (Level 1)Focus on self (Level 1)  Caring for others equated with good (Level 2)Caring for others equated with good (Level 2)  Caring for others and responsibility forCaring for others and responsibility for individual needs (Level 3)individual needs (Level 3)  Two transitionsTwo transitions  Movement from selfishness to responsibilityMovement from selfishness to responsibility  Movement from goodness to truthMovement from goodness to truth
    • HavighurstHavighurst ickering and Havighurstickering and Havighurst  Concept of the “teachable moment” whenConcept of the “teachable moment” when the learning opportunity coincides withthe learning opportunity coincides with the life task at handthe life task at hand  Identified developmental tasks specific toIdentified developmental tasks specific to white, middle-class North Americanswhite, middle-class North Americans
    • Abraham MaslowAbraham Maslow  Development as reaching self-actualizationDevelopment as reaching self-actualization  Accepting of themselves and othersAccepting of themselves and others  Problem-centered not self-centeredProblem-centered not self-centered  Have spontaneityHave spontaneity  Have had mystical or spiritual experiencesHave had mystical or spiritual experiences  Resist conformity to cultureResist conformity to culture  Need for privacyNeed for privacy  Deep relationships with a few special othersDeep relationships with a few special others  Have creativityHave creativity
    • Roger GouldRoger Gould  Development is a process of confrontingDevelopment is a process of confronting layer upon layer of childhood painlayer upon layer of childhood pain  Development involves separation fromDevelopment involves separation from childhood assumptionschildhood assumptions
    • Erik EriksonErik Erikson  Development occurs as demands ofDevelopment occurs as demands of society provoke struggle or crisis withinsociety provoke struggle or crisis within the personthe person  Eight psycho-social stages: five inEight psycho-social stages: five in childhood based on Freudian conceptschildhood based on Freudian concepts  Adult stagesAdult stages  IntimacyIntimacy  GenerativityGenerativity  IntegrityIntegrity
    • Life Events TheoristsLife Events Theorists Neugarten (1976)Neugarten (1976) Baltes et al. (1980)Baltes et al. (1980) Riegel (1976)Riegel (1976) Merriam and Clark (1991)Merriam and Clark (1991)
    • NeugartenNeugarten  Adult development defined by time factorsAdult development defined by time factors  Social timeSocial time  Development situations are not experiencedDevelopment situations are not experienced as crises ifas crises if they occur “on time” as socially appropriatethey occur “on time” as socially appropriate  Crises come from “off time” life events when experienceCrises come from “off time” life events when experience differs from expectationsdiffers from expectations  Historical time – creates age appropriate normsHistorical time – creates age appropriate norms  Chronological age – increases ability to interpretChronological age – increases ability to interpret experience in more refined waysexperience in more refined ways
    • Baltes et al.Baltes et al.  Normative age-graded developmental influencesNormative age-graded developmental influences  Physical maturity, commencement of education, death ofPhysical maturity, commencement of education, death of parentsparents  Normative, historically-determined eventsNormative, historically-determined events  Economic depressions, wars, etcEconomic depressions, wars, etc  Non-normative influences of great impactNon-normative influences of great impact  Experiences unique to the individual such as contractingExperiences unique to the individual such as contracting rare disease, winning the lottery, etcrare disease, winning the lottery, etc
    • RiegelRiegel  Individual is a changing person in a changing worldIndividual is a changing person in a changing world  Human development moves along 4 dimensionsHuman development moves along 4 dimensions  Inner-biological (maturation, health)Inner-biological (maturation, health)  Individual-psychological (self-concept, self-esteem)Individual-psychological (self-concept, self-esteem)  Cultural-social (rules, regulations, social rituals)Cultural-social (rules, regulations, social rituals)  Outer physical (natural world events)Outer physical (natural world events)  When any 2 dimensions are in conflict,When any 2 dimensions are in conflict, developmental change may occurdevelopmental change may occur
    • Merriam and ClarkMerriam and Clark  LoveLove andand WorkWork are the two goals ofare the two goals of successful adult developmentsuccessful adult development  Found 3 patterns unrelated to age or genderFound 3 patterns unrelated to age or gender  Divergent (when one is good, other is low)Divergent (when one is good, other is low)  Steady/Fluctuating (one steady, other fluctuates)Steady/Fluctuating (one steady, other fluctuates)  Parallel (Love and work happiness coincide)Parallel (Love and work happiness coincide)
    • Transitions TheoristsTransitions Theorists Bridges (1980)Bridges (1980) Sugarman (1986)Sugarman (1986)
    • William BridgesWilliam Bridges  Life marked by a series of transitionsLife marked by a series of transitions  Each individual has a characteristic way ofEach individual has a characteristic way of dealing with transitions which will bedealing with transitions which will be repeated throughout liferepeated throughout life  Three recurring eventsThree recurring events  Endings firstEndings first  Neutral zoneNeutral zone  New beginningNew beginning
    • SugarmanSugarman  Change experience follows a characteristic patternChange experience follows a characteristic pattern  Immobilization – sense of being overwhelmedImmobilization – sense of being overwhelmed  Reaction – sharp mood swings from elation to despairReaction – sharp mood swings from elation to despair  Denial - minimizing the impactDenial - minimizing the impact  Letting go of the pastLetting go of the past  Testing – exploring new optionsTesting – exploring new options  Searching for meaning – a conscious effort to learn fromSearching for meaning – a conscious effort to learn from the experiencethe experience  Integration – feeling at home with the changeIntegration – feeling at home with the change