Adult
Development
Theories
Class 5
ADLT 671, Theory and Practice of Adult Learning
Personal Development
Theorists
• Age / Stage
• Development proceeds according to a series
of stages adults pass through as...
Age – Stage Theorists
Levinson (1978, 1996)
Gilligan (1982)
Havighurst (1981)
Maslow (1968)
Gould (1978)
Erikson (1959)
Daniel Levinson
• Life cycle composed of 4 developmental periods
• Childhood – Adolescence (birth – age 20)
• Early Adulth...
Carol Gilligan
• Feminist perspective on age-stage theories
• Highly critical of Levinson’s concept of “the
dream”
• Male ...
Gilligan, con’t
• Women’s moral judgment proceeds through
three levels
• Focus on self (Level 1)
• Caring for others equat...
Havighurst
Chickering and Havighurst
• Concept of the “teachable moment” when
the learning opportunity coincides with the
...
Abraham Maslow
• Highest level of development is reaching self-
actualization
• Accepting of themselves and others
• Probl...
Roger Gould
• Development is a process of
confronting layer upon layer of
childhood pain
• Development involves separation...
Erik Erikson
• Development occurs as demands of society
provoke struggle or crisis within the person
• Eight psycho-social...
Life Events Theorists
Neugarten (1976)
Baltes et al. (1980)
Riegel (1976)
Merriam and Clark (1991)
Neugarten
• Adult development defined by time factors
• Social time
• Development situations are not experienced as crises...
Baltes et al.
• Normative age-graded developmental influences
• Physical maturity, commencement of education,
death of par...
Riegel
• Individual is a changing person in a changing world
• Human development moves along 4 dimensions
• Inner-biologic...
Merriam and Clark
• To be able to love and to work are the two
goals of successful adult development
• Found 3 patterns un...
Transitions Theorists
Bridges (1980)
Sugarman (1986)
William Bridges
• Life marked by a series of transitions
• Each individual has a characteristic way of
dealing with transi...
Sugarman
• Change experience follows a characteristic pattern
• Immobilization – sense of being overwhelmed
• Reaction – s...
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Class 5, adlt 671 developmental theorists

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Class 5, adlt 671 developmental theorists

  1. 1. Adult Development Theories Class 5 ADLT 671, Theory and Practice of Adult Learning
  2. 2. Personal Development Theorists • Age / Stage • Development proceeds according to a series of stages adults pass through as they age • Life Events • Development coincides with major life events such as marriage, death of spouse, etc • Transitions • Development marked by periods of transition from one stage to another
  3. 3. Age – Stage Theorists Levinson (1978, 1996) Gilligan (1982) Havighurst (1981) Maslow (1968) Gould (1978) Erikson (1959)
  4. 4. Daniel Levinson • Life cycle composed of 4 developmental periods • Childhood – Adolescence (birth – age 20) • Early Adulthood (ages 17-45) • Middle Adulthood (ages 40 – 65) • Late Adulthood (ages 60 – onward) • Each transition takes 3-6 years to complete • Concept of individuation – changing relationship between self and the world • Conceived of the midlife crisis
  5. 5. Carol Gilligan • Feminist perspective on age-stage theories • Highly critical of Levinson’s concept of “the dream” • Male identity build upon contrast and separateness to primary care-giver • Female identity based on perceptions of sameness and attachment to primary caregiver
  6. 6. Gilligan, con’t • Women’s moral judgment proceeds through three levels • Focus on self (Level 1) • Caring for others equated with good (Level 2) • Caring for others and responsibility for individual needs (Level 3) • Two transitions • Movement from selfishness to responsibility • Movement from goodness to truth
  7. 7. Havighurst Chickering and Havighurst • Concept of the “teachable moment” when the learning opportunity coincides with the life task at hand • Identified developmental tasks specific to white, middle-class North Americans
  8. 8. Abraham Maslow • Highest level of development is reaching self- actualization • Accepting of themselves and others • Problem-centered not self-centered • Have spontaneity • Have had mystical or spiritual experiences • Resist conformity to culture • Need for privacy • Deep relationships with a few special others • Express creativity
  9. 9. Roger Gould • Development is a process of confronting layer upon layer of childhood pain • Development involves separation from childhood assumptions
  10. 10. Erik Erikson • Development occurs as demands of society provoke struggle or crisis within the person • Eight psycho-social stages: five in childhood based on Freudian concepts • Adult stages • Intimacy • Generativity • Integrity
  11. 11. Life Events Theorists Neugarten (1976) Baltes et al. (1980) Riegel (1976) Merriam and Clark (1991)
  12. 12. Neugarten • Adult development defined by time factors • Social time • Development situations are not experienced as crises if they occur “on time” as socially appropriate • Crises come from “off time” life events when experience differs from expectations • Historical time – creates age appropriate norms • Chronological age – increases ability to interpret experience in more refined ways
  13. 13. Baltes et al. • Normative age-graded developmental influences • Physical maturity, commencement of education, death of parents • Normative, historically-determined events • Economic depressions, wars, etc • Non-normative influences of great impact • Experiences unique to the individual such as contracting rare disease, winning the lottery, etc
  14. 14. Riegel • Individual is a changing person in a changing world • Human development moves along 4 dimensions • Inner-biological (maturation, health) • Individual-psychological (self-concept, self-esteem) • Cultural-social (rules, regulations, social rituals) • Outer physical (natural world events) • When any 2 dimensions are in conflict, developmental change may occur
  15. 15. Merriam and Clark • To be able to love and to work are the two goals of successful adult development • Found 3 patterns unrelated to age or gender • Divergent (when one is good, other is not) • Steady/Fluctuating (one steady, other fluctuates) • Parallel (love and work happiness coincide)
  16. 16. Transitions Theorists Bridges (1980) Sugarman (1986)
  17. 17. William Bridges • Life marked by a series of transitions • Each individual has a characteristic way of dealing with transitions which will be repeated throughout life • Three recurring events • Endings first • Neutral zone • New beginning
  18. 18. Sugarman • Change experience follows a characteristic pattern • Immobilization – sense of being overwhelmed • Reaction – sharp mood swings from elation to despair • Denial - minimizing the impact • Letting go of the past • Testing – exploring new options • Searching for meaning – a conscious effort to learn from the experience • Integration – feeling at home with the change
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