Adult Development
Theories
Class 5
ADLT 671, Theory and Practice of Adult
Learning
Personal Development Theorists
O Age / Stage
O Development proceeds according to a series of
stages adults pass through as...
Age – Stage Theorists
Levinson (1978, 1996)
Gilligan (1982)
Havighurst (1981)
Maslow (1968)
Gould (1978)
Erikson (1959)
Daniel Levinson
O Life cycle composed of 4 developmental periods
O Childhood – Adolescence (birth – age 20)
O Early Adulth...
Carol Gilligan
O Feminist perspective on age-stage theories
O Highly critical of Levinson’s concept of “the
dream”
O Male ...
Gilligan, con’t
O Women’s moral judgment proceeds through three levels
O Focus on self (Level 1)
O Caring for others equat...
Havighurst
Chickering and Havighurst
O Concept of the “teachable moment” when
the learning opportunity coincides with the
...
Abraham Maslow
O Highest level of development is reaching
self-actualization
O Accepting of themselves and others
O Proble...
Roger Gould
O Development is a process of
confronting layer upon layer of
childhood pain
O Development involves separation...
Erik Erikson
O Development occurs as demands of society
provoke struggle or crisis within the
person
O Eight psycho-social...
Life Events Theorists
Neugarten (1976)
Baltes et al. (1980)
Riegel (1976)
Merriam and Clark (1991)
Neugarten
O Adult development defined by time factors
O Social time
O Development situations are not experienced
as crises...
Baltes et al.
O Normative age-graded developmental
influences
O Physical maturity, commencement of education,
death of par...
Riegel
O Individual is a changing person in a changing
world
O Human development moves along 4
dimensions
O Inner-biologic...
Merriam and Clark
O To be able to love and to work are the two
goals of successful adult development
O Found 3 patterns un...
Transitions Theorists
Bridges (1980)
Sugarman (1986)
William Bridges
O Life marked by a series of transitions
O Each individual has a characteristic way
of dealing with transi...
Sugarman
O Change experience follows a characteristic
pattern
O Immobilization – sense of being overwhelmed
O Reaction – s...
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Class 5, adlt 671 developmental theorists

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Class 5, adlt 671 developmental theorists

  1. 1. Adult Development Theories Class 5 ADLT 671, Theory and Practice of Adult Learning
  2. 2. Personal Development Theorists O Age / Stage O Development proceeds according to a series of stages adults pass through as they age O Life Events O Development coincides with major life events such as marriage, death of spouse, etc O Transitions O Development marked by periods of transition from one stage to another
  3. 3. Age – Stage Theorists Levinson (1978, 1996) Gilligan (1982) Havighurst (1981) Maslow (1968) Gould (1978) Erikson (1959)
  4. 4. Daniel Levinson O Life cycle composed of 4 developmental periods O Childhood – Adolescence (birth – age 20) O Early Adulthood (ages 17-45) O Middle Adulthood (ages 40 – 65) O Late Adulthood (ages 60 – onward) O Each transition takes 3-6 years to complete O Concept of individuation – changing relationship between self and the world O Conceived of the midlife crisis
  5. 5. Carol Gilligan O Feminist perspective on age-stage theories O Highly critical of Levinson’s concept of “the dream” O Male identity build upon contrast and separateness to primary care-giver O Female identity based on perceptions of sameness and attachment to primary caregiver
  6. 6. Gilligan, con’t O Women’s moral judgment proceeds through three levels O Focus on self (Level 1) O Caring for others equated with good (Level 2) O Caring for others and responsibility for individual needs (Level 3) O Two transitions O Movement from selfishness to responsibility O Movement from goodness to truth
  7. 7. Havighurst Chickering and Havighurst O Concept of the “teachable moment” when the learning opportunity coincides with the life task at hand O Identified developmental tasks specific to white, middle-class North Americans
  8. 8. Abraham Maslow O Highest level of development is reaching self-actualization O Accepting of themselves and others O Problem-centered not self-centered O Have spontaneity O Have had mystical or spiritual experiences O Resist conformity to culture O Need for privacy O Deep relationships with a few special others O Express creativity
  9. 9. Roger Gould O Development is a process of confronting layer upon layer of childhood pain O Development involves separation from childhood assumptions
  10. 10. Erik Erikson O Development occurs as demands of society provoke struggle or crisis within the person O Eight psycho-social stages: five in childhood based on Freudian concepts O Adult stages O Intimacy O Generativity O Integrity
  11. 11. Life Events Theorists Neugarten (1976) Baltes et al. (1980) Riegel (1976) Merriam and Clark (1991)
  12. 12. Neugarten O Adult development defined by time factors O Social time O Development situations are not experienced as crises if they occur “on time” as socially appropriate O Crises come from “off time” life events when experience differs from expectations O Historical time – creates age appropriate norms O Chronological age – increases ability to interpret experience in more refined ways
  13. 13. Baltes et al. O Normative age-graded developmental influences O Physical maturity, commencement of education, death of parents O Normative, historically-determined events O Economic depressions, wars, etc O Non-normative influences of great impact O Experiences unique to the individual such as contracting rare disease, winning the lottery, etc
  14. 14. Riegel O Individual is a changing person in a changing world O Human development moves along 4 dimensions O Inner-biological (maturation, health) O Individual-psychological (self-concept, self- esteem) O Cultural-social (rules, regulations, social rituals) O Outer physical (natural world events) O When any 2 dimensions are in conflict, developmental change may occur
  15. 15. Merriam and Clark O To be able to love and to work are the two goals of successful adult development O Found 3 patterns unrelated to age or gender O Divergent (when one is good, other is not) O Steady/Fluctuating (one steady, other fluctuates) O Parallel (love and work happiness coincide)
  16. 16. Transitions Theorists Bridges (1980) Sugarman (1986)
  17. 17. William Bridges O Life marked by a series of transitions O Each individual has a characteristic way of dealing with transitions which will be repeated throughout life O Three recurring events O Endings first O Neutral zone O New beginning
  18. 18. Sugarman O Change experience follows a characteristic pattern O Immobilization – sense of being overwhelmed O Reaction – sharp mood swings from elation to despair O Denial - minimizing the impact O Letting go of the past O Testing – exploring new options O Searching for meaning – a conscious effort to learn from the experience O Integration – feeling at home with the change

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