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KNOWLES’ PRINCIPLES OF ANDRAGOGY• The learners feel a need to learn• The learning environment is characterized by mutual respect andtrust and acceptance of differences• The learners perceive the goals of the learning experience to betheir goals• The learners share responsibility for planning• The learners participate actively• The learning process makes use of learners’ experiences• The learners have a sense of progress towards goals
PEDAGOGICAL ANDRAGOGICALASSUMPTIONS ASSUMPTIONS• Postponed time application• Subject-centeredorientation to learning• Self concept is one ofdependency• Experience is of little value• Readiness to learn dependson biological development• Immediacy of time application• Problem centered orientation tolearning• Self concept is toward increasingself-directedness• Learners are a rich resource forlearning• Readiness depends ondevelopmental tasks of socialroles
PEDAGOGICAL ANDRAGOGICALDESIGN FACTORS DESIGN FACTORS• Teacher formulates objectives• Material is studied by contentunits• Transmittal techniques used• Evaluation by teacher• Authority oriented, formalclimate, often competitive• Teacher plans learningexperience• Teacher diagnoses needs• Teacher evaluates• Mutual negotiation of objectives• Material sequenced in terms oflearner readiness• Experiential, inquiry techniques• Mutual evaluation• Climate characterized bymutuality, respect, collaboration,and informality• Mutually planned learningexperience• Mutual self-diagnosis of needs• Mutual evaluation