Enemy Analysis Capabilities Vulnerabilities Requirements Examples: Money Technical know-how Bomb making supplies Vehicles Compliant population Suicide bombers Examples: Key individuals Caches VBIED Factories Examples: Information dissemination VBIEDs External support Hide within population Where do we start? Step 3 - Evaluate the Threat (1-2) What must the enemy do/have to accomplish his objectives? What resources does the enemy have available? What shortfalls does the enemy have between capabilities and his requirements?
Enemy Analysis Examples: Emplacers Builders Financiers Triggermen Another method… Who Is attacking? Organizing? Directing? What Are their objectives? Methods? Techniques? When Do they emplace? Attack? Where Have they attacked? Will they attack in the Future? Do they store? Assemble? Get supplies? Why Do they Attack coalition? Locals? Examples: RCIED Complex Baited ambush Examples: Day Night Before/ after clearing Examples: Previous attacks Examples: Personal gain Money Power Revenge Step 3 - Evaluate the Threat (2-2)
Disposition Location Tactical deployment Where they are & What they are doing Includes:
Composition Who they are & What they have 24 134/10 1 2 2/28/134 Unit Identification Organization I X
Strength Includes: Personnel Equipment Weapon Systems
Order of Battle Factors
The Enemy – Big to Small 3 14 15 23 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 xx xx xx xx III III III III II II II II 10 T-80 29 BMP 10 T-80 29 BMP 10 T-80 29 BMP 10 T-80 29 BMP 5th OSC
The Enemy – Total Combat Power 40 x T80 116 x BMP2 12 x AT5 6 x AT5(D) 6 x 2A45M 100 Inf (Air Insert) 100 Inf (Truck) 100 Inf (FD) 6 x 2S6 3 x SA-18 4 x MSD FSD AT CO MOD 2/24 1/24 (+) 24 III 14 x T80 35 x BMP2 6 x AT5 3 x 2A45M 100 Inf (FD) 3 x 2S6 1 x MSD 10 x T80 29 x BMP2 3 x AT5 3 x 2A45M 1-2 x 2S6 1 x MSD 3 x T80 8 x BMP2 1 x AT5 3 x 2A45M 2 x AT5 1 x UMZ 1 x GMZ 9 x T80 27 x BMP2 1 x 2S6 1 x MSD 7 x T80 22 x BMP2 1 x 2S6 1 x MSD 3/24 I I (-) 4/24 I I (-)
Enemy Strengths/Weaknesses Heavily reliant upon ground based recon Effective ground based recon Intel Weakness Strength WFF Limited available artillery systems; targeting reliant upon HUMINT Counter-fire radar (45km range) Dedicated sensor-to-shooter link at MID 75% rounds fired RAP/ext FS Modern T-80 tanks (2500m MG, AT-8) equipped w/ thermal imaging BMP-2 - All are TIS equip & stab M2 Limited range of ADA systems; minimal threat to fixed-wing aircraft Dedicated engineer support at all levels; Significant mobile ADA either self-propelled or shoulder-fired; night capable ADA. Protection Heavily reliant upon retrans due to terrain FM Single Channel Encrypted C2 Critical shortage of POL; limited repair parts for tanks; limited ammunition for tanks and artillery Sustainment
From Order of Battle Data and Threat Model Threat Capabilities - what the threat can accomplish
Identify Threat Capabilities ( Can the enemy dance?)
Four tactical COAs open to military forces in conventional operations:
Conduct a retrograde
Broad COAs can be divided into a variety of more specific COAs.
WFF Capabilities (Equipment and Capabilities)
Examples of these types of capabilities are--
Use of NBC weapons.
Use of supporting air assets.
Air assault or airborne operations.
Psychological operations (PSYOP).
Illustrate the deployment pattern and disposition preferred by the threat's normal tactics when not constrained by the effects of the battlefield environment.
Usually scaled graphic depictions of threat dispositions for a particular type of standard operation
Depicts how the enemy would like to fight without terrain restriction EA ... ... Doctrinal Template
Unconventional Doctrinal Templates
Unconventional operations can also be depicted using a doctrinal template.
For example a drug trafficking ring that transports large amounts of drugs my use certain convoy procedures, such as the distance between vehicles, how many vehicles, where security forces are placed and how many are in the convoy, and how the security force will react to a police force
Limited Objective Attacks
Description of Tactics and Options
Operations of the major units or elements portrayed on the template
Activities of the different battlefield operating systems
Listing or description of options available to the threat should the operation fail (branches), or subsequent operations if it succeeds (sequels)
Determine Threat COAs
Identification and development of likely threat COAs that will influence accomplishment of the friendly mission
Identification of those areas and activities that, when observed, will discern which COA the threat commander has chosen
Determine Threat COAs [Situation Templates & Event Template]
Identify the threats likely objectives and desired end state
Identify the full set of COAs available to the threat
Evaluate and prioritize each COA
Develop each COA in the amount of detail time allows
Identify initial collection requirements
FM 34-130, 1994, p. 2-39 thru 2-40 IPB Step 4
Most Probable (MPCOA)
Most Dangerous (MDCOA)
All Additional ECOA
Step 4 - Determine Threat COAs Define the Battlefield Environment Describe the Battlefield's Effects Evaluate the Threat Determine Threat COAs
Identify Threat’s Likely Objectives and Endstate
Strategic: The level of war at which a nation, group of nations, or an international organization, determine security objectives and guidance.
Operational: The level of war at which campaigns and major operations are planned and executed (OSC and DTG).
Tactical: The level of war at which battles and engagements are planned and executed (BTG and IMG). Activities at this level focus on the maneuver of combat elements in relation to each other and the enemy.
Identify Threat’s Likely Objectives and End State
What does the enemy seek to do to us?
How does the enemy define success?
How can we deny him success?
Identify Threat COAs
Brainstorm all possible options for the enemy
Analyze recent activities -- what does it mean?
Analyze battlefield environment impact
An Enemy COA must meet the following criteria:
suitable : has the potential to accomplish the mission and meet the enemy commander’s intent
feasible : capability to accomplish mission – physical resources
acceptable : level of risk
distinguishable : significantly different from other COAs; by use of reserves, task organization, Scheme of Maneuver or Scheme of Defense
Consistent with doctrine
Identify Threat COAs
task - Enemy’s mission
purpose - Commander’s Intent
method – by BOS
endstate – what the enemy has done to friendly forces and their status
Analyze how COA address 8 forms of contact: visual, direct, indirect, non-hostile, obstacles, aircraft, CBRNE, EW
Define center of gravity, decisive point, and culminating point
Define main and supporting efforts
THREAT COA MODEL
Threat COA Model – A model of one COA available to the threat. It consists of a graphic depiction ( situational template ); a description ( narrative or matrix ); and a listing of assets important to the success of the COA ( HVTs ). The degree of detail in the model depends on available time.
At a minimum, the COA models address the five standard elements of a COA:
WHAT (the type of operation),
WHEN (the earliest time the operation can begin),
WHERE (boundaries, axis) ,
HOW (the use of assets),
and WHY (the desired end-state).
Prepare COA Statements and Sketches
Sketch : visualization product
At a minimum sketch should include:
- Planning HQs, and subordinate unit boundaries
- Allocated forces
- Ground and air avenues of approach
- Zones of attack of defense sectors
- AAs, BPs, OBJs, obstacles
- FEBA or LD/LC
- Provide terrain for clarity
ENEMY COURSE OF ACTION MISSION: INTENT: TASK ORG: TASK & PURPOSE: RECON: FS: C2: Decision to execute COA 2 based on read by DTG Recon of defensive prep on AA3B. Reconstitute assault force upon its destruction in battalion on Route White has not been defeated. The 202 BTG attacks to destroy friendly forces NLT XX2100JUN01 in order to fix enemy and prevent the BDE from counter-attacking the DTG exploitation force. Move rapidly through the AOR to gain contact with the enemy. Fix enemy forces in prepared defensive positions. Assault force defeats northern battalion in east while exploitation force destroys battalion in west IVO Kill Zone 2. I E I I 18 X 2S1 I I 18 X 2S3 X 202 22 I I I I DISRUPTION ZONE Recon Det: T: ID enemy defensive positions P: ID HPTs and determine best route for exploitation force. BATTLE ZONE Fixing Force: T: Destroy enemy forces on AA 3C & 4B. P: Prevent enemy forces from attacking BTG main effort the exploitation force. Assault Force T: Defeat enemy forces in east. P: Prevent action against the exploitation force and attrit enemy forces in the battle zone. Exploitation Force T: Destroy enemy battalion IVO Kill Zone 2. P: Fix enemy BCT and prevent attack on DTG exploitation force. Initially set to support Recon Fires. Facilitate movement of recon det. and destroy Q36 or Q37 Radar. O/O shift to destroy enemy in contact w/ assault force. O/O shift to destruction fires ISO exploitation force. Identify MDL to facilitate commitment of ME. Identify HPTs for destruction w/ reconnaissance fires. Identify reserve for disruption by fire support assets. X XXX XII X PL ZINC PL GOLD X Kill Zone 2 Kill Zone 1 I I (+) X PL SILVER I I (+) I I (-) KALMAL I I (+) I ASSAULT EXPLOITATION Kill Zone 3 BTG Attack Zone BTG Battle Zone
PL TIM 3 X 2 X 3 X PL DAVE (FEBA) PL LARRY PL ROGER (FLOT/IHOL) ECOA Sketch EXAMPLE 1-5 II 4-64 II II HVTs by Phase: Recon/INF Fight - AT5s, BMPs, BRDMs 2S5s, Inf LD - POP Fight - ENG assets, BMPs 2S19s, ARK 1, BM21s POP - ENG assets, BMPs, 2S1s, T80s MISSION Statement: who, what, when, where why. RECON T: ZONE RECON P: LOCATE BLUFOR CO PSNs/ HPTS INF T: SEIZE KEY TERRAIN ; DESTROY ENEMY COMPANY TEAM P: SUPPORT MAIN BODY AT THE POINT OF PENETRATION DISRUPT T: SEIZE KEY TERRAIN; FIX ENEMY FORCES P: PREVENT REPOSITIONING/MASSING FIXING T: DESTROY CO TEAMS/ FIX KEY FORCES P: PREVENT REPOSITIONING/MASSING/PROTECT FLANKS ASSAULT T: DESTROY CO TEAMS P: PROTECT FLANK OF EXPLOIT/ESTABLISH BREACH EXPLOIT T: PENETRATE ENEMY BPs, DESTROY KEY NODES/RESERVE P: FACILITATE DEEP PENETRATION / DENY CBT OPNS SPT IFC T: DESTROY MECH, ENG, & INF FORCES/SUPPRESS ARMOR P; DISRUPT DEFENSE T: CONDUCT COUNTERFIRE, DESTROY DEEP HPTS, FASCAM P: DESTROY FS, HPTS, AND DELAY COUNTERATTACK II II Destroyer AT-5 100 INF 3 ATs Angel AT-5 100 INF 3 ATs DISRUPT 4/12/3 ASSAULT 12/32/0 FIX 6/16/2 EXPLOIT 10/28/1 EXPLOIT 10/28 0715 MB. 210545 CRP’s 201900APR BDE RECON 191830APR DIV RECON 0600 FSE 0630 AGMB 2S1 BN ATTACK TIMELINE AT LD 0645 BRAG DAG Emplaced
PL TIM 3 X 2 X 3 X PL DAVE (FEBA) PL LARRY PL ROGER (FLOT/IHOL) ECOA Sketch EXAMPLE CONTINUED 1-5 II 4-64 II II IFC HVTs by Phase: Recon/INF Fight - AT5s, BMPs, BRDMs 2S5s, Inf LD - POP Fight - ENG assets, BMPs 2S19s, ARK 1, BM21s POP - ENG assets, BMPs, 2S1s, T80s MISSION Statement: who, what, when, where why. Total Number 18 2S1s 18 2S19s 18 2S5s 18 BM21s 6 Hinds Special Munitions 6 NP 1 PCHEM 2 FASCAM RECON T: ZONE RECON P: LOCATE BLUFOR CO PSNs/ HPTS INF T: SEIZE KEY TERRAIN ; DESTROY ENEMY COMPANY TEAM P: SUPPORT MAIN BODY AT THE POINT OF PENETRATION DISRUPT T: SEIZE KEY TERRAIN; FIX ENEMY FORCES P: PREVENT REPOSITIONING/MASSING FIXING T: DESTROY CO TEAMS/ FIX KEY FORCES P: PREVENT REPOSITIONING/MASSING/PROTECT FLANKS ASSAULT T: DESTROY CO TEAMS P: PROTECT FLANK OF EXPLOIT/ESTABLISH BREACH EXPLOIT T: PENETRATE ENEMY BPs, DESTROY KEY NODES/RESERVE P: FACILITATE DEEP PENETRATION / DENY CBT OPNS SPT IFC T: DESTROY MECH, ENG, & INF FORCES/SUPPRESS ARMOR P; DISRUPT DEFENSE T: CONDUCT COUNTERFIRE, DESTROY DEEP HPTS, FASCAM P: DESTROY FS, HPTS, AND DELAY COUNTERATTACK II II NP NP NP NP … … BAG 2S19 2S19 2S1 IFC DAG BM-21 2S5 JTOC TOC 0715 MB. 210545 CRP’s 201900APR BDE RECON 191830APR DIV RECON 0600 FSE 0630 AGMB 2S1 BN ATTACK TIMELINE AT LD 0645 BRAG DAG Emplaced
Depicts how the Enemy may deploy, employ and operate within constraints of battlefield conditions. A snap shot in time of a critical event.
Enemy SOP (Threat Model) Environment (Terrain Weather) Enemy COA (SITEMP) I I I Fire Sac I I I Fire Sac
Changing Threat COAs
Conventional Focus Requirement
Identify the Threat’s likely and desired
Identify the full set of COAs
available to the threat
Evaluate and prioritize each COA
Develop each COA in the amount
of detail time allows
Identify initial collection requirements
COIN Environment Considerations
COA development becomes MUCH more complex due to:
Available maneuver options
Increase in friendly vulnerabilities.
Limited attack options
Increased Fratricide Risk
Event-based vs. Maneuver-based COAs
Collection requirements are difficult to focus until patterns develop
Most Probable Course of Action (MPCOA) - COA Sketch & Statement (Includes T, P, M, E, DP, CP) - SITEMP (brief T/P by subunit and/or BOS) - OBJ Blowup Sketch - High Value Targets (HVT) Most Dangerous Course of Action (MDCOA) - Same as for MPCOA - Explain differences between MDCOA, MPCOA, and additional ECOAs FINAL ASSESSMENTS - Enemy Strengths & How to Overcome - Enemy Weaknesses & How to Exploit - How Best to Assault the OBJ - Weaknesses of the Enemy at the OBJ - Best Use of Terrain to Assault the OBJ - Where should we attack/assault from, and why? Evaluate Threat COAs
Event-based vs. Maneuver-based COAs ISSUE - COAs may consist of linked singular events to reach a desired end-state vice conventional maneuver operations to destroy enemy forces and seize terrain. EVENTS INTENDED EFFECT DESIRED ENDSTATE Snipe Bombing Mortar Attack Observe Only Influence CF to withdraw and gain political control Loss of Public Support Lower Morale Operation too long Operation too costly
Products of IPB High Value Targets Define the Battlefield Environment Describe the Battlefield’s Effects Determine Threat Courses of Action Event Template Situation Template Modified Combined Obstacle Overlay Doctrinal Template Evaluate the Threat
Depiction of assumed threat dispositions, based on threat doctrine and the effects of the battlefield
Normally, the situation template depict threat units two levels of command below the friendly force as well as the expected location of high value targets
Situation templates use time phase lines (TPLs) to indicate movement of forces and the expected flow of the operation
Prepare as many graphics as necessary to depict the COA in enough detail to support staff war gaming and collection planning
Tailor the situation templates to your needs by focusing on the factors that are important to the commander or mission area
A situation might focus only on the treat’s reconnaissance assets, depicting details such as location and movement routes of these assets, their likely employment area, and their likely NAIs
FM 34-130, 1994, p. 2-45 & G-10
Time - Phase Lines
Graphic means of comparing the enemy’s mobility capability along multiple avenues of approach / mobility corridors
Based on doctrinal rates of movement and battlefield environment
Initial TPL indicated as “H” at enemy FLOT
Assist in tracking actual and potential enemy movement
FM 34-130, 1994, p. 2-45 & G-10
Time Phase Lines
Lines that provide a graphic means of comparing the enemy’s mobility along avenues of approach.
Defined by doctrinal rates of movement
Influenced by terrain, weather, and combat operations (enemy forces)
Define deviations of doctrinal maneuver
Assists in tracking the enemy and directing collection assets
Rates of movement found in FM 34-130 App b4
6 Covering Force Area 5 Rear Area 2 Main Battle Area 20-30 KM Ideal Conditions 5-10 WX/terrain restricts Unopposed KM / Hour Situation
Reverse BOS IPB
The entire staff contributes expertise to ECOA development and ISR planning and integration:
Evaluates likely air corridors.
Likely timing of air strikes or air assault operations
Likely targets and objectives of enemy air operations
How enemy ADA will position to protect its forces
Where will the enemy deploy his artillery
Where are enemy target acquisition assets (radars)
Determine High Value Targets (HVT)
How deep can his indirect fires range
Reverse BOS IPB
Where will enemy emplace obstacles
Time required to emplace each type of obstacle
Time required to breach obstacles
Time required to entrench a mechanized company
Ability to bridge different size obstacles and time required
Threat capabilities to employ NBC weapons
Threat NBC protection capabilities
Types of delivery systems, including min and max range
Indicators of preparations to employ NBC weapons
Existing contaminated areas that may indicate a ECOA
Friendly assets the enemy may target with NBC weapons
Reverse BOS IPB
Ability to locate or intercept friendly systems
Speed that the enemy can collect, process and target C4I
Ability to link collection systems to indirect fires
Deployment patterns of SIGINT collection systems
Techniques of electronic deception or network attack
What is the political situation in the AO
What factions are friendly, neutral or threat
Where are areas that civilians gather to protest or demonstrate
Who or where is information gained on particular AOs?
A guide for collection and ISR planning
Depicts where to collect the information that will indicate which COA the threat has adopted
Differences between the NAIs, indicators, and TPLs associated with each COA form the basis of the event template
Named area of interest (NAI) - the specific point, route, or area where key events are expected to occur; where information that will satisfy a specific information requirement can be collected; usually selected to capture indications of threat COAs but also may be related to conditions of the battlefield
Indicator - positive or negative evidence of threat activity; activities which reveal the selected COA
The initial event template focuses on identifying which of the predicted COAs the threat has adopted
FM 34-130, 1994, p. 2-50, G-7 & G-8
Event Template 1 2 SITEMP 1 SITEMP 2 Consolidated SITEMP EVENT TEMPLATE 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 & 2 2 2 NAI 2 NAI 3 NAI 4 NAI 1
Example Event Temp H-Hr H-Hr H + 30 H + 60 H + 90 H +120 H +150 H + 30 H + 60 H + 90 H +120 H +150 NAI 8 NAI 6 NAI 2 NAI 4 NAI 1 NAI 3 NAI 7 Ea Smash NAI 9 NAI 5
Example of an Event Template
NAI LOCATION EN COA INDICATOR NET/ NLT PRIORITY PRIMARY/ ALTERNATE CONFIRMATION REMARKS EVENT MATRIX (S2) ISR MATRIX (S3) 1. Start with Situation Template 2. Determine Time Phase Lines (TPLs) and Mobility Corridors 3. Determine where events will occur that differentiate between EN COAs (these become NAIs) 4. Determine what action confirms or denies a particular EN COA (Indicators) 5. Determine when events will occur (NET/NLT) EVENT TEMPLATE 1 FL 123456 1 Bridging Operations H+30 H+1.5 2 FL 123456 1 Armor Assets H+15 H+2 3 FL 123456 2 Bridging Operations H+45 H=1.5