Biochemistry          An Introduction to the Chemistry of          Life for Biochemistry Students          International s...
What is Life Made of?  Physical and Chemical sciences alone   may not completely explain the nature of   life, but they a...
Organic Chemistry  Organic chemistry is the study of Carbon   compounds.  Organic compounds are compounds   composed pri...
Organic Chemistry  What makes Carbon Special? Why is   Carbon so different from all the other   elements on the periodic ...
Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry  Carbon can covalently bond with up  to four other atoms.
Carbon can form immenselydiverse compounds, fromsimple to complex.  Methane with 1 Carbon   DNA with tens of Billions of  ...
Biochemistry Biochemistry is a special branch of  organic chemistry that deals with matter  inside the living cell called...
Biochemistry How much  biochemistry do you  need to know for this   2. You will be  course?                 expected to l...
Primary OrganicCompoundsYou are expected     1.   Carbohydratesto learn the                     2.   Lipidsstructure andfu...
Polymers andsMonomers Each of these types of molecules are  polymers that are assembled from single  units called monomer...
MonomersMacromolecule   MonomerCarbohydrates   MonosaccharideLipids          Not always polymers;                 Hydrocar...
How    do monomersform   polymers? In condensation reactions (also called  dehydration synthesis), a molecule of  water i...
Hydrolysis  In a reaction opposite to condensation, a   water molecule can be added (along with   the use of an enzyme) t...
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are made of carbon,  hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, always in  a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates ...
Carbohydrates What do the roots        mono-, di-, oligo-,  and poly mean? Each of these roots  can be added to the  wo...
How do twomonosaccharides combineto make a polysaccharide? 
Polysaccharides
Lipids  Lipids are molecules that consist of long   hydrocarbon chains. Attaching the three   chains together is usually ...
Saturated vs.Unsaturated Fat 
Proteins  Proteins are building blocks of structures   called amino acids. Proteins are what   your DNA codes to make (we...
Levels of ProteinStructure 
Protein Structure Level        Description Primary      The amino acid                sequence              Helices and Sh...
Primary   structureanalogy   means......                 Primary data                  Primary data                 Kova...
Salmonelle coloniescount by......             These were their              kuantitative counting             By using c...
Drug discovery todaywere combiningbetween
Biochemistry biomolecules
Biochemistry biomolecules
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Biochemistry biomolecules

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Biochemistry biomolecules

  1. 1. Biochemistry An Introduction to the Chemistry of Life for Biochemistry Students International school or National plus school Adapted by Tielumphd source: harper et al Good luck!!!
  2. 2. What is Life Made of?  Physical and Chemical sciences alone may not completely explain the nature of life, but they at least provide the essential framework for such an explanation.  All students of life must have a fundamental understanding of organic chemistry and biochemistry.
  3. 3. Organic Chemistry  Organic chemistry is the study of Carbon compounds.  Organic compounds are compounds composed primarily of a Carbon skeleton.  All living things are composed of organic compounds.
  4. 4. Organic Chemistry  What makes Carbon Special? Why is Carbon so different from all the other elements on the periodic table?  The answer derives from the ability of Carbon atoms to bond together to form long chains and rings.
  5. 5. Organic Chemistry
  6. 6. Organic Chemistry Carbon can covalently bond with up to four other atoms.
  7. 7. Carbon can form immenselydiverse compounds, fromsimple to complex. Methane with 1 Carbon DNA with tens of Billions of atom Carbon atoms
  8. 8. Biochemistry Biochemistry is a special branch of organic chemistry that deals with matter inside the living cell called Protoplasm. Protoplasm is an enormously complex mixture of organic compounds where high levels of chemical activity occur.
  9. 9. Biochemistry How much biochemistry do you need to know for this 2. You will be course? expected to learn the basic 1. You need to know biochemical the structure of processes of organic molecules major cell important to major functions, such as biological processes. photosynthesis, respiration, and protein synthesis.
  10. 10. Primary OrganicCompoundsYou are expected 1. Carbohydratesto learn the 2. Lipidsstructure andfunctions of these 3. Proteinsorganic 4. Nucleic Acidscompounds:
  11. 11. Polymers andsMonomers Each of these types of molecules are polymers that are assembled from single units called monomers. Each type of macromolecule is an assemblage of a different type of monomer.
  12. 12. MonomersMacromolecule MonomerCarbohydrates MonosaccharideLipids Not always polymers; Hydrocarbon chainsProteins Amino acidsNucleic acids Nucleotides
  13. 13. How do monomersform polymers? In condensation reactions (also called dehydration synthesis), a molecule of water is removed from two monomers as they are connected together.
  14. 14. Hydrolysis  In a reaction opposite to condensation, a water molecule can be added (along with the use of an enzyme) to split a polymer in two.
  15. 15. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, always in a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates are the key source of energy used by living things. The building blocks of carbohydrates are sugars, such as glucose and fructose.
  16. 16. Carbohydrates What do the roots  mono-, di-, oligo-, and poly mean? Each of these roots can be added to the word saccharide to describe the type of carbohydrate you have.
  17. 17. How do twomonosaccharides combineto make a polysaccharide? 
  18. 18. Polysaccharides
  19. 19. Lipids  Lipids are molecules that consist of long hydrocarbon chains. Attaching the three chains together is usually a glycerol molecule. Lipids are NONpolar.
  20. 20. Saturated vs.Unsaturated Fat 
  21. 21. Proteins  Proteins are building blocks of structures called amino acids. Proteins are what your DNA codes to make (we will talk about this in great detail in a month or so).  A peptide bond forms between amino acids by dehydration synthesis.
  22. 22. Levels of ProteinStructure 
  23. 23. Protein Structure Level Description Primary The amino acid sequence Helices and Sheets Secondary Disulfide bridges Tertiary Multiple polypeptides Quaternary connect
  24. 24. Primary structureanalogy means......  Primary data Primary data  Kovalen bonds Kovalen bonds
  25. 25. Salmonelle coloniescount by......  These were their kuantitative counting  By using colony counting methods  Must searching more spesific methode to repair this standart methode.
  26. 26. Drug discovery todaywere combiningbetween

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