Lecture+3 air+traffic+control+(atc)+tower
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  • One of the primary duties of air traffic controllers is to control the flow of air traffic so that it is most efficient and safe as can be. More specifically, air traffic controllers engage in a number of tasks relative to this objective such as direct pilots to the runway, alert the pilots as to additional air traffic in the area, issue instructions for takeoff and landing, direct airplane pilots while en route to their destinations and maintain contact with the pilots during the travel. The air traffic controllers are responsible for aiding the pilots in reaching their destination. The air traffic controllers are also responsible for doing preparation work before the flights take off. They will be responsible for checking weather statistics at both the current airport and future destination to ensure the safest route of travel and issue any possible weather delays. These individuals will also need to prepare specific flight information prior to the flight taking off. The job of the air traffic controller does not always entail pilot contact alone. There are many clerical duties which go along with being an air traffic controller. There are many documents needed to be filled out and paperwork which must be completed each day by the air traffic controller. Certain clerical tasks may include analyzing weather reports and fuel requirements, compile pilots reports and flight plan documentation, complete daily logs, keep messages from the aircraft and review all reports for clarity and completeness. The pilots are not the only ones who receive instruction from air traffic controllers. Also part of an air traffic controller’s duties is to instruct ground workers at the airport and/or airline in certain duties. This is necessary to ensure that the airplanes receive baggage workers and maintenance workers at the right place at the right time. Air traffic controllers are also vital in the case of an emergency. Should an airplane encounter problems, the air traffic controller’s role is extremely important. The air traffic controllers will maintain contact with the pilots, aid in overcoming any flight problems, provide flight path changes for bad weather and in extreme circumstances, direct pilots to a specific area for emergency landings. The air traffic controller must also efficiently hand over control to the airplane’s destination traffic control tower. Therefore, it is imperative that air traffic controllers maintain contact with one another so that they can let the destination tower know which airline is coming into their vicinity and let them know the approximate time of arrival. Lastly, air traffic controllers must ensure that they are doing their jobs in strict compliance with federal regulations. They will also need to comply with specific airport rules and regulations while working at that particular airport. In order to complete their jobs to the fullest of their potential, air traffic controllers must be alert and effective while in the tower. <br />
  • ATC providing safe operating conditions for aircraft and passengers <br /> Control the airport operating services and the airspace within a 5 to 10 km radius of the airport <br /> Deal with airport operations staff for the airport surfaces and equipment maintenance (snow removal, ice control, airport lighting, etc) <br /> Deal with airport emergency plans (aircraft crash, bomb threat, hi-jacking, etc.) <br />
  • Preflight <br /> The pilot receives the most recent weather information and a flight plan has been filed. Prior to takeoff, the pilot performs the flight check routine, pushes back the aircraft from the terminal&apos;s gate, and taxis out to the designated takeoff runway. <br /> Takeoff <br /> The pilot receives permission from Local Control (the Tower) to takeoff. The aircraft powers up and begins its takeoff roll. <br /> Departure <br /> Upon lift off, the pilot is instructed to change radio frequencies to receive new flight instructions from Departure Control in the TRACON. The pilot is instructed to follow a pre-determined, preferred routing that will take the aircraft up and away from the departure airport onto its route. The pilot is then issued further altitude and routing clearance. The controller monitors the target (the aircraft) and its track (flight path) on the radar scope. As the aircraft reaches the edge of the TRACON airspace, the Departure Controller performs an electronic transfer of the flight to the controller in the next airspace. <br />
  • En Route <br /> The pilot receives instructions as to what altitude and heading to maintain, as well as to which radio frequency to tune. This portion of the flight can be as short as a few minutes or as long as many hours. <br /> Descent <br /> As the aircraft nears its destination airport, the pilot is instructed to change radio frequencies and contact Descent Control for instructions. The pilot is instructed to descend and change heading. After receiving these instructions, the aircraft descends and maneuvers to the destination airport. <br /> Approach <br /> The pilot has received an approach clearance to the destination airport from the Approach Controller working in the TRACON. The flight has been placed in line with other aircraft preparing to land at the same airport. The pilot flies a specified flight procedure in order to get in line for the designated landing runway. The pilot receives instructions from the Approach Controller to change radio frequency and contact Local Control (in the airport&apos;s control tower) for landing clearance. The aircraft is electronically handed off from TRACON to the Tower. <br /> Landing <br /> The pilot receives clearance from the Local Controller in the airport&apos;s control tower to land on a designated runway. Upon touching down, the flight is then handed off to Ground Control. The Ground Controller directs the pilot across the taxiways to its destination gate at the terminal. <br />

Lecture+3 air+traffic+control+(atc)+tower Lecture+3 air+traffic+control+(atc)+tower Presentation Transcript

  • Lecture 3: Air Traffic Control Tower By: Zuliana Ismail
  • The Air Traffic Control Tower at Heathrow Airport, London.
  • The Air Traffic Control Tower at KLIA Airport View slide
  • What Are the Purposes of ATC Towers? View slide
  • Air Traffic Control Services • To provide aerodrome control service. • To direct pilots to the runway, taxiway, or apron, issue instructions for takeoff and landing, • To control the flow of runway traffic so that it is most efficient and safe (fast clearance, no hold or delay)
  • Air Traffic Control Services • To update important information such weather. • ATC also responsible for checking weather statistics at both the current airport and future destination to ensure the safest route of travel and issue any possible weather delays. • Have to contact Meteorological Stations (METs) to update the weather info.
  • Air Traffic Control Services • ATC are also vital in the case of an emergency. • Should an airplane encounter problems, the air traffic controller’s role is extremely important. • The air traffic controllers will maintain contact with the pilots, aid in overcoming any flight problems, provide flight path changes for bad weather and in extreme circumstances, direct pilots to a specific area for emergency landings. • As example, aircraft crash, bomb threat, hi-jacking, etc.
  • Air Traffic Control Services • Also part of an air traffic controller’s duties is to instruct ground workers at the airport in certain duties. • As example, for the airport surfaces and equipment maintenance (snow removal, ice control, airport lighting, etc)
  • Air Traffic Services at KLIA Air Traffic Control Tower Apron Control Tower
  • Air Traffic Services at KLIA • ATC at KLIA Managed by Department of Civil Aviation. • Facilities: • Terminal Area Radar (TAR) • Surface Movement Radar (SMR) • Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)
  • Terminal Approach RADAR
  • Terminal Approach RADAR (TAR) • TAR are comprised of two major components; Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR) and Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR). • PSR detects and provides both range and bearing information of an aircraft within its effective coverage by radio wave reflection. • SSR radar provides, after processing, the range, bearing, altitude and identity (callsign) of an aircraft.
  • Surface Movement Radar (SMR) Display KLIA Main Control Tower
  • Surface Movement Radar (SMR) • This radar is mounted on top of the Aerodrome Control Tower for surveillance of the movement of aircraft and vehicles on the runway and taxiways. • The accurate information provided enables the tower controller to maintain a smooth flow of traffic during low visibility or darkness.
  • ATC Equipment
  • Flight Data Processing System (FDPS) • The FDPS processes the flight plan data from aeronautical messages and prints out flight progress strips automatically for use by air traffic controllers to assist in updating/monitoring of the aircraft flight profile, such as flight route, estimated time of departure/arrival, flight level, expected times at reporting points, cruising speed, etc.
  • Automatic Terminal Information System (ATIS) • A VHF broadcasting system for continuous distribution of vital information (such as updated airside, meteorological and navigational aids serviceability information, etc.) to pilots.
  • Flight Profile • Every aircraft that flies follows a similar flight pattern that begins before takeoff and ends after landing. • This pattern is called a flight profile. • A typical commercial flight profile has 7 phases. • Each phase of a typical flight profile is monitored by an air traffic control facility with its own group of controllers. • Each of these controllers follows specific rules and procedures while directing flights through designated airways. • They monitor the flight using special equipment and decision support tools (computers) that ensure a safe and efficient flight.
  • Cruise / En-route Climb Preflight & Take-off Descend Approach And Landing
  • 7 Flight Profile • Step 1- Preflight: Pilot files the flight plan & send to the Tower controller. Tower inform pilot the weather information. Flight checks, push-back from the gate & taxi to the runway. • Step 2- Take-off: Tower controller gives pilot clearance for take-off, aircraft powers up & take-off. • Step 3- Departure: Aircraft climbs to a define altitude Tower controller pass their communication with pilot to the Departure Controller. Pilot receives clearance for routing.
  • 7 Flight Profile • Step 4- En-route: Communication with the pilot then pass to the Air Route Controller. Air route controller instructing pilot to the specific altitude and heading. • Step 5- Descent: Near airport Approach Controller instructing pilot to descent & change heading. • Step 6- Approach: Pilot receives approach clearance & the then communication with pilot is passed to the Tower Controller. • Step 7- Landing: Local controller at tower gives clearance for landing. Ground controller directs the pilot across the taxiways to its destination gate at the terminal.
  • Air Route Traffic Control Centers Radar Display Systems