Food service management
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  • 1. FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT FOOD SAFETY TITIS SARI KUSUMA 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 1
  • 2. FOOD SERVICE MANAGER 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 2
  • 3. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 3
  • 4. SANITATION • the application of a science to provide wholesome food processed, prepared, merchandised, and sold in a clean environment by healthy workers; • to prevent contamination with microorganisms that cause foodborne illness; • and to minimize the proliferation of food spoilage microorganisms. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 4
  • 5. Effective sanitation refers to all the procedures that help accomplish these goals 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 5
  • 6. Major food safety incidents have common characteristics and include biological, chemical, or physical hazards. They occur throughout the food system and have occurred globally and often result from one or a combination of factors including: 09/03/2014 • contaminated raw materials • errors in transportation, processing, • preparation, handling, or storage packaging problems • food tampering/malicious contamination • mishandling • changes in formulation or processing • inadequate maintenance of equipment or facilities • addition of incorrect ingredient(s) Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 6
  • 7. REGULATION OF SANITATION • • • • Food and Drug Administration Regulations Good Manufacturing Practices U.S. Department of Agriculture Regulations Environmental Regulations – Federal Water Pollution Control Act; Clean Air Act; Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA); and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 7
  • 8. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 8
  • 9. What is ‘safe’ food? For consumers: Zero risk/hazard For manufacturers: Acceptable risk/hazard 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 9
  • 10. Food safety experts agree… Zero risk is not feasible. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 10
  • 11. However… The risk of food poisoning could be reduced from farm to fork. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 11
  • 12. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 12
  • 13. FOOD SAFETY Assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and / or eaten according to its intended use 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 13
  • 14. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 14
  • 15. Potential hazards to food safety Physical Chemical Biological 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 15
  • 16. Physical Hazards • Hair • Dirt • Metal staples • Broken glass 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 16
  • 17. Chemical Hazards • Pesticides • Food additives • Cleaning supplies • Toxic metals 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 17
  • 18. Biological Hazards • Bacteria • Viruses • Parasites 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 18
  • 19. Bacteria Bacteria are causative agents of foodborne illness in cases that require hospitalization. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 19
  • 20. Pathogens are ubiquitous –Intestinal tracts of normal, healthy animals –Soil and vegetation –Animal wastes 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 20
  • 21. Pathogens are ubiquitous –Human skin surfaces and nasal passages –Water supplies contaminated with feces –Coastal waters 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 21
  • 22. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 22
  • 23. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 23
  • 24. FOOD BORNE ILLNESS • an outbreak of foodborne illness is an incident where two or more people experience the same illness after eating the same food. • An outbreak is confirmed when laboratory analysis shows that a specific food is the source of the illness 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 24
  • 25. FOOD BORNE INFECTION • Invasion of and multiplication within the body by – – – – – – – – 09/03/2014 Salmonella Campylobacter E. coli (certain strains) V. parahaemolyticus V. cholerae Y. enterocolitica A. hydrophila L. monocytogenes Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 25
  • 26. FOOD BORNE INTOXICATION • Intoxication due to toxin produced in the food – B. Cereus – C. Botulinum – S. Aureus – Mycotoxin : Alfatoxin 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 26
  • 27. POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOODS (PHF) a food that requires time/temperature control for safety (TCS) to limit pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 27
  • 28. Potentially Hazardous Foods 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 28
  • 29. Potentially Hazardous Foods 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 29
  • 30. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 30
  • 31. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 31
  • 32. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 32
  • 33. Causes of Allergen Contamination • cross-contamination through inadequate cleaning of equipment used for the manufacture of nonallergen containing products produced after allergen-containing foods • changing of ingredients without an allergen assessment of the new materials • use of reworks • formulation errors • incorrect labeling 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 33
  • 34. ALLERGENS • FOOD ALLERGY AND ANAPHYLAXIS NETWORK (FAAN) – UP TO 200 DEATHS/YEAR • 90% OF ALL ARE CAUSED BY “BIG EIGHT” – MILK, EGGS, FISH, WHEAT, TREE NUTS, PEANUTS, SOYBEANS, CRUSTACEANS • OTHER FOOD INGREDIENTS – SULFITES AND MSG 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 34
  • 35. Components of allergen control • • • • • • • • • • • Employee education Supplier monitoring Control steps Cleaning Raw material storage Plant layout Color coding of utensils Incorporation of reworks Label review Documentation review of activities Evaluation of program effectiveness 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 35
  • 36. ALLERGEN MANAGEMENT • adopt a “zero tolerance” protection program against allergen cross-contamination • all personnel should be trained in allergen management strategy • ensure that incoming ingredients are clearly labeled and that the labels are reviewed periodically to confirm that suppliers have not changed ingredients without notice • develop an allergen storage policy including a procedure for the cleanup of spills • design equipment to facilitate cleaning and the prevention of allergen harborage niches 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 36
  • 37. ALLERGEN MANAGEMENT • conduct an allergen risk assessment as part of or in addition to the HACCP Program • clean between rounds of allergen ingredients • adopt a comprehensive rework policy, including clear identification of workin- process materials and reworks • reject in-process materials or finished products suspected of crosscontamination • review labels before use and confirm that the correct labels are incorporated in the process • conduct internal audits or use a thirdparty auditor to assess the allergen management strategy • evaluate and track consumer complaints involving allergen issues and designate a trained person to respond to consumer inquiries regarding allergens 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 37
  • 38. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 38
  • 39. TRANSFER OF CONTAMINATION • Transmission of the causative agent from the environment in which the food is produced, processed, or prepared to the food itself. • A source and a reservoir of transmission for each agent. • Transmission of the agent from the source to a food. • Growth support of the microorganism through the food or host that has been contaminated. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 39
  • 40. CONTAMINATION OF FOODS • • • • DAIRY PRODUCTS RED MEAT PRODUCTS POULTRY PRODUCTS SEAFOOD PRODUCTS 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 40
  • 41. OTHER CONTAMINATION SOURCES • • • • • Equipment Employees Air and Water Sewage Insects and Rodents 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 41
  • 42. PROTECTION AGAINST CONTAMINATION • The Environment • Storage • Litter and Garbage 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 42
  • 43. How food becomes unsafe • Purchasing food from unsafe sources • Failing to cook food adequately • Holding food at improper temperatures 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 43
  • 44. How food becomes unsafe • Using contaminated equipment • Poor personal hygiene 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 44
  • 45. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 45
  • 46. CLEANING 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 46
  • 47. CLEANING 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 47
  • 48. CLEANING 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 48
  • 49. CLEANING 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 49
  • 50. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 50
  • 51. KNOWS THE... 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 51
  • 52. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 52
  • 53. PRE REQUISITE PROGRAMS • In order for your food safety management system to be effective, you should first develop and implement a strong foundation of procedures that address the basic operational and sanitation conditions within your operation. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 53
  • 54. PRE REQUISITE PROGRAMS Regulation 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 54
  • 55. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 55
  • 56. Food safety systems • Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) • Good Manufacturing/ Hygienic Practices (GMP/GHP) • Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 56
  • 57. Food safety systems 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 57
  • 58. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 58
  • 59. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 59
  • 60. How foodhandlers contaminate food • Scratching the scalp • Running fingers through hair • Wiping or touching the nose • Rubbing an ear 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 60
  • 61. How foodhandlers contaminate food • Touching a pimple or an open sore • Wearing dirty uniform • Coughing or sneezing • Spitting in the establishment 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 61
  • 62. Components of a good personal hygiene program • Maintaining personal cleanliness • Proper work attire • Following hygienic hand practices 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 62
  • 63. Proper handwashing procedure 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 63
  • 64. Proper handwashing procedure 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 64
  • 65. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 65
  • 66. Acceptable handwashing station 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 66
  • 67. When to wash hands 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 67
  • 68. When to wash hands 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 68
  • 69. When to wash hands 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 69
  • 70. Hand care for food handlers  09/03/2014  Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 70
  • 71. Glove use • Gloves must never be used in place of handwashing. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 71
  • 72. Change gloves… – as soon as they become soiled or torn – before beginning a different task – at least every 4 h during continual use 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 72
  • 73. Clean and sanitize equipment 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 73
  • 74. Avoiding cross contamination • Use one cutting board for fresh produce and a separate board for meats, fish and poultry. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 74
  • 75. Set criteria for acceptance of raw and cooked ingredients Accept 09/03/2014 Reject Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 75
  • 76. Set criteria for acceptance of raw and cooked ingredients Accept 09/03/2014 Reject Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 76
  • 77. Safe food handlers? 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 77
  • 78. Cool foods safely 1 09/03/2014 2 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 78
  • 79. Cool foods safely 3 09/03/2014 4 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 79
  • 80. Storing food safely • Potentially hazardous, ready-to-eat foods prepared in-house can be stored at a maximum of 7 days at 4 C 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 80
  • 81. Thaw frozen foods safely 1 2 3 4 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 81
  • 82. Breading foods • Never use breading for more than one product. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 82
  • 83. Cook foods to proper temperature • Poultry – 74ºC • Ground Meats – 68ºC • Pork, Beef, Lamb – 63ºC 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 83
  • 84. Cook foods to proper temperature • Fish – 63-74ºC • Leftovers – 74ºC 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 84
  • 85. Holding foods safely Cold-Holding 09/03/2014 Hot-Holding Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 85
  • 86. Holding foods safely • In the absence of proper heat- cold holding, discard foods 4 hours after display. 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 86
  • 87. Serving foods safely 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 87
  • 88. The future… Safe food is a moving target… The problem is never solved completely because change is constant… 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 88
  • 89. In the mean time… 09/03/2014 Disampaikan pada perkuliahan FSM 1(2013/2014) 89